Psychology and behavorial sciences: summaries and study assistance - WorldSupporter Start

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Summaries, study notes, tips and tools for studying psychology and behavorial sciences

Psychology and behavioral sciences


What is psychology?

  • Psychology is the science of behavior and the mind. Behavior revolves around observable actions of people and animals, and mind concerns all human subjective experiences such as human memory, feelings and dreams, but also all unconscious knowledge and habits that have an influence. on people's conscious behavior.
  • Science is also defined as 'attempts to find answers to questions through the systematic collection of observable data and their logical analysis'.
  • Man is the only being who can think through his actions, feelings, dreams and thoughts. This ability to reflect has led to the emergence of psychology as a science.
  • The most important question we ask ourselves in psychology is: “why do people think, feel and behave the way they do?” The mind cannot be directly observed, which is why psychology often relies on interpreting observable behaviors to collect data. That data is then often used to draw conclusions about the mind.

Main topics related to psychology and behavioral sciences?

Psychology: summaries of legendary standard works, literature and manuals

Psychology: summaries of legendary standard works, literature and manuals

Summary Introduction to Health Psychology - Morrison

Summary Introduction to Health Psychology - Morrison

What is health? - Chapter 1

Changing perspectives

According to Stone (1979) there are a number of questions that cannot be answered in concrete terms. For example, the question of how we maintain, protect and recover health, as long as there is no clear meaning to health and how it can be measured. Most people will not realize that 'health' has / can have a totally different meaning for other people, cultures, social classes, etc.

Mind-body relationships

Holes for the skull drilling process were sometimes found in skulls from the Stone Age to allow the evil spirits that caused diseases to be released. Illness was also sometimes interpreted as a punishment of the gods by the ancient Hebrew texts.

The ancient Greeks saw body and mind as a whole, but did not attribute illness to spiritual matters. Hippocrates was one of the first who talked about a balance between the four bodily fluids, also called humours (mucus, blood, yellow bile and black bile). Each humour has a different trait. In addition, the humours are also linked to seasons and the four conditions dry, wet, cold and warm. Mucus is connected to winter (cold and wet) and large amounts of mucus is linked to a calm temperament. Blood is connected to spring (wet and warm) and large amounts of blood are linked to an optimistic personality. Large amounts of yellow bile are associated with an angry temperament and belongs to the summer (hot and dry). Finally, black bile is related to sadness and autumn (cold and dry). If the juices are in balance, a person is healthy. Hippocrates also recognized the link between (healthy) eating and health and that physical factors can influence the mind.

Galen, another influential Greek, talked about the physical basis of diseases some 300 years after Hippocrates. The bodily fluids would not only affect our character, but would also be responsible for certain diseases. The mind plays no role in the development of a disease. The occurrence of a disease is also called etiology.

In the Middle Ages, health was again seen primarily as a function of spirituality. Illness was declared as God's punishment for misconduct or by evil spirits who had taken possession of someone, as they used to think. Individuals had little or no control over their health.

In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Renaissance period, much attention was paid to individual thinking and doing. The scientific revolution around 1600 caused a lot of developments in physical medicine. Statements for illness had an organic and physiological perspective, psychological explanations were not present.

At the beginning of the 17th century, Descartes came with dualism. According to Descartes, body and mind are separated, but interaction between the two was possible.

Doctors were there to protect and heal the material body and spiritual scholars to protect the non-material mind.

Dualists, such as Descartes, saw the body as a machine. This so-called mechanism implies that behavior can be reduced to the physical functioning of the body. This approach is the basis for the biomedical model, which assumes that disease

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SPOTLIGHT STATISTICS

Statistics: Magazines for encountering Statistics

Statistics: Magazines for encountering Statistics

Startmagazine: Introduction to Statistics

Startmagazine: Introduction to Statistics

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Introduction to Statistics: in short

  • Statistics comprises the arithmetic procedures to organize, sum up and interpret information. By means of statistics you can note information in a compact manner.
  • The aim of statistics is twofold: 1) organizing and summing up of information, in order to publish research results and 2) answering research questions, which are formed by
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Stats for students: Simple steps for passing your statistics courses

Stats for students: Simple steps for passing your statistics courses

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Stats of studentsTheory of statistics

  • The first years that you follow statistics, it is often a case of taking knowledge for granted and simply trying to pass the courses. Don't worry if you don't understand everything right away: in later years it will fall into place and you will see the importance of the theory you had to know before.
  • The book you need to study may be difficult to understand at first. Be patient: later in your studies, the effort you put in now will pay off.
  • Be a Gestalt Scientist! In other words, recognize that the whole of statistics is greater than the sum of its parts. It is very easy to get hung up on nit-picking details and fail to see the forest because of the trees
  • Tip: Precise use of language is important in research. Try to reproduce the theory verbatim (ie. learn by heart) where possible. With that, you don't have to understand it yet, you show that you've been working on it, you can't go wrong by using the wrong word and you practice for later reporting of research.
  • Tip: Keep study material, handouts, sheets, and other publications from your teacher for future reference.

Formulas of statistics

  • The direct relationship between data and results consists of mathematical formulas. These follow their own logic, are written in their own language and can therefore be complex to comprehend.
  • If you don't understand the math behind statistics, you don't understand statistics. This does not have to be a problem, because statistics is an applied science from which you can also get excellent results without understanding. None of your teachers will understand all the statistical formulas.
  • Please note: you will have to know and understand a number of formulas, so that you can demonstrate that you know the principle of how statistics work. Which formulas you need to know differs from subject to subject and lecturer to lecturer, but in general these are relatively simple formulas that occur frequently and your lecturer will tell you (often several times) that you should know this formula.
  • Tip: if you want to recognize statistical symbols you can use: Recognizing commonly used statistical symbols
  • Tip: have fun with LaTeX! LaTeX code gives us a simple way to write out mathematical formulas and make them look professional. Play with LaTeX. Wit that, you can include used formulas in your own papers and you learn to understand how a formula is built up – which greatly benefits your understanding and remembering that formula. See also (in Dutch): How to create formulas like a pro on JoHo WorldSupporter?
  • Tip: Are you interested in a career in sciences or programming? Then take your formulas seriously and go through them again after your course.

Practice of statistics

Selecting data

  • Your teacher will regularly use a dataset for lessons during the first years of your studying. It is instructive (and can be a lot of fun) to set up your own research for once with real data that is also used by other researchers.
  • Tip: scientific articles often indicate which datasets have been used for the research. There is a good chance that those datasets are valid. Sometimes there are also studies that determine which datasets are more valid for the topic you want to study than others. Make use of datasets other researchers point out.
  • Tip: Do you want an interesting research result? You can use the same method and question, but use an alternative dataset, and/or alternative variables, and/or alternative location, and/or alternative time span. This allows you to validate or falsify the results of earlier research.
  • Tip: for datasets you can look at Discovering datasets for statistical research

Operationalize

  • For the operationalization, it is usually sufficient to indicate the following three things:
    • What is the concept you want to study?
    • Which variable does that concept represent?
    • Which indicators do you select for those variables?
  • It is smart to argue that a variable is valid, or why you choose that indicator.
  • For example, if you want to know whether someone is currently a father or mother (concept), you can search the variables for how many children the respondent has (variable) and then select on the indicators greater than 0, or is not 0 (indicators). Where possible, use the terms 'concept', 'variable', 'indicator' and 'valid' in your communication. For example, as follows: “The variable [variable name] is a valid measure of the concept [concept name] (if applicable: source). The value [description of the value] is an indicator of [what you want to measure].” (ie.: The variable "Number of children" is a valid measure of the concept of parenthood. A value greater than 0 is an indicator of whether someone is currently a father or mother.)

Running analyses and drawing conclusions

  • The choice of your analyses depends, among other things, on what your research goal is, which methods are often used in the existing literature, and practical issues and limitations.
  • The more you learn, the more independently you can choose research methods that suit your research goal. In the beginning, follow the lecturer – at the end of your studies you will have a toolbox with which you can vary in your research yourself.
  • Try to link up as much as possible with research methods that are used in the existing literature, because otherwise you could be comparing apples with oranges. Deviating can sometimes lead to interesting results, but discuss this with your teacher first.
  • For as long as you need, keep a step-by-step plan at hand on how you can best run your analysis and achieve results. For every analysis you run, there is a step-by-step explanation of how to perform it; if you do not find it in your study literature, it can often be found quickly on the internet.
  • Tip: Practice a lot with statistics, so that you can show results quickly. You cannot learn statistics by just reading about it.
  • Tip: The measurement level of the variables you use (ratio, interval, ordinal, nominal) largely determines the research method you can use. Show your audience that you recognize this.
  • Tip: conclusions from statistical analyses will never be certain, but at the most likely. There is usually a standard formulation for each research method with which you can express the conclusions from that analysis and at the same time indicate that it is not certain. Use that standard wording when communicating about results from your analysis.
  • Tip: see explanation for various analyses: Introduction to statistics
Statistics: Magazines for understanding statistics

Statistics: Magazines for understanding statistics

Startmagazine: Introduction to Statistics

Startmagazine: Introduction to Statistics

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Introduction to Statistics: in short

  • Statistics comprises the arithmetic procedures to organize, sum up and interpret information. By means of statistics you can note information in a compact manner.
  • The aim of statistics is twofold: 1) organizing and summing up of information, in order to publish research results and 2) answering research questions, which are formed by
........Read more
Understanding data: distributions, connections and gatherings
Understanding reliability and validity
Statistics Magazine: Understanding statistical samples
Understanding variability, variance and standard deviation
Understanding inferential statistics
Understanding type-I and type-II errors
Statistiek: samenvattingen en studiehulp - WorldSupporter Start
Statistics: Magazines for applying statistics

Statistics: Magazines for applying statistics

Applying z-tests and t-tests
Applying correlation, regression and linear regression
Applying spearman's correlation
Statistiek: samenvattingen en studiehulp - WorldSupporter Start
Personal competences and emotions - WorldSupporter Theme

SPOTLIGHT NL

Psychology Startmagazines: summaries and studynotes 2023-2024 (NL)

Psychology Startmagazines: summaries and studynotes 2023-2024 (NL)

Psychology: Amsterdam - Bachelor and Masters UvA - Summaries and study services
Psychology: Enschede - Bachelor and Masters UT - Summaries and study services
Psychology: Groningen - Bachelor and Masters RUG - Summaries and study services
Psychologie: Leiden - Bachelor en Masters UL - Samenvattingen en studiehulp
Psychologie: Utrecht - Bachelor en Masters UU - Samenvattingen en studiehulp
Psychology Startmagazines & Bundles: summaries and studynotes before 2022
Psychologie: samenvattingen en studiehulp - WorldSupporter Start
Psychology and behavioral sciences: The best scientific articles summarized

Psychology and behavioral sciences: The best scientific articles summarized

Psychology and behavioral sciences: The best scientific articles summarized

Summaries and study assistance with scientific articles in psychology

  • for 400+ articlesummaries with psychological and behavioral sciences, see the supporting content of this study guide

Table of content

  • Biopsychology & neuropsychology

  • Clinical & health psychology

  • Criminology & Criminal behavior

  • Developmental psychology

  • Labor- and organizational psychology

  • Psychopathology

  • Psychopharmacology

  • Social psychology

Related summaries and study assistance

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Psychology and behavioral sciences: The best concepts summarized
Psychologie: samenvattingen en studiehulp - WorldSupporter Start

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There are several ways to navigate the large amount of summaries, study notes en practice exams on JoHo WorldSupporter.

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Psychologie: samenvattingen en studiehulp - WorldSupporter Start
Psychology and behavioral sciences: The best scientific articles summarized

Psychology and behavioral sciences: The best scientific articles summarized

Psychology and behavioral sciences: The best scientific articles summarized

Summaries and study assistance with scientific articles in psychology

  • for 400+ articlesummaries with psychological and behavioral sciences, see the supporting content of this study guide

Table of content

  • Biopsychology & neuropsychology

  • Clinical & health psychology

  • Criminology & Criminal behavior

  • Developmental psychology

  • Labor- and organizational psychology

  • Psychopathology

  • Psychopharmacology

  • Social psychology

Related summaries and study assistance

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