Writing therapies for Post-Traumatic Stress and Post-Traumatic Stress DisorderVan Emmerik, A., & Kamphuis, J.H. (2015)A review of procedures and outcomes Writing is an effective psychological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. The model includes three phases: 1) focusing on imaginal exposure to traumatic memories 2) cognitive restructuring and coping 3) social sharing and closure. Therapeutic model The basic therapeutic model of writing therapy includes three phases, whose effects cannot be completely disentangled. Imaginal exposure to traumatic memories The goal of the first phase is to expose clients to their traumatic memories, in order to achieve habituation and extinction of the fearful and other negative emotional responses that reactivation of these memories evoke. Clients are asked to write a detailed account of the traumatic event, focusing on the most painful facts and emotions associated with the event. Clients are instructed to write in the first person and in the present tense. They must pay attention to their sensory experiences and bodily sensations during the event and to facts and feelings they have avoided. The clinician’s primary task is to read the client’s essay and to determine with the client 1) what are the most painful facts and feelings 2) explore if any facts or feelings have been avoided 3) instruct the client to focus on precisely these facts and feelings in subsequent writing assignments.Cognitive restructuring and coping Targets the maladaptive cognitions and coping...


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