Workgroup 7 and 8 (semester 2, 2019/2020) have been cancelled and will be done using Skype due to COVID 19. For this week the students were first required to submit potential exam questions and their answers. This task was later cancelled. Here are some examples of potential exam questions. 1. Describe the incentive-sensitisation theory of addiction using an example.2. Describe which dissociative symptoms can be present in a personality disorder.3. Which neurotransmitter plays a role in aggressive impulses?4. Describe the difference between axis I and axis II disorders and give an example for each. 5. Describe the difference between somatic symptom disorders and psychosomatic disorders. Answers1. 1) Developing hyposensitisation when someone gets in touch with addicitve substances. Someone will be less likely to experience the effects of the substance when that person uses it more often. Example: using cocaine2) The addictive substance the neurological system and influences one's behaviour. The person will feel more joy when using the substance. Example: feeling joy and other desirable sensations when using cocaine.3) Incentive salience: the urge to use the substance. It goes beyond 'liking' the substance and its effects. Example: feeling like you really need the cocaine, instead of just using it for 'fun'.4) Repetition of behaviour2. - Amnesia: e.g. not remembering anything that happened prior to reaching a certain age (e.g. 10 years old)- Depersonalisation: feeling like your body and your feelings don't belong to you- Hallucinations: hearing voices, seeing things, feeling sensations which aren't there. 43% of those with a personality disorder experience hallucinations3. Serotononin4. Axis I provided information about clinical disorders. Any mental health condition other than personality disorders or mental retardation would have been included in axis I. Examples of Axis I disorders are eating disorders, schizophrenia...


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      Workgroups Clinical Psychology

      Workgroup 1: Introduction Clinical Psychology

      Workgroup 1: Introduction Clinical Psychology

      The students were supposed to read “Ecstasy as a remedy for PTSD? You probably have some questions” (Dave Philipps, New York Times, 2018; https://www.nytimes.com/2018/05/01/us/ecstasy-molly-ptsd-mdma.html), and they had to find scientific evidence for whether treatment with ecstasy/MDMA actually works in reducing symptoms of PTSD. Also, students had to come up with a hypothesis for how it may work.

      Literature for whether treatment with ecstasy/MDMA would work:

      • Thal & Lommen (2018) have conducted an experiment using ecstasy/MDMA to reduce the symptoms of PTSD and have found an overall remission rate of 66.2%. There were low rates of adverse effects.
      • Mithoefer et al. (2019) performed MDMA-assisted psychotherapy and found that it was efficacious and well tolerated.

       

      A potential hypothesis is that MDMA can theoretically manipulate modulators of emotional learning and memory during psychotherapy in key brain regions.

       

      Treatment types

      • CBT: to help you manage your problems by changing how you think and act and your cognitions
      • EMDR: eye movements while recalling the traumatic event. While you’re following the object with your eyes you think about the traumatic event. Your working memory has less space to think about the event for the fully 100%.
      • Group therapy
      • Antidepressants

       

       

       

       

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      Workgroup 4: Addiction

      Workgroup 4: Addiction

      This week's literature and lecture was about addiction. Topics discussed are addiction to drugs and alcohol and how addiction develops and how it is maintained. Before attending this workgroup the students were asked to watch the documentary The city addicted to crystal meth, which is available on NPO. This documentary was discussed during the workgroup: what were scenes/things which stood out to you? What surprised you? What do you think about the therapy session showed in the documentary?

      In the therapy sessions, demonstrated in the documentary, addicts were confronted with their loved ones while other addicts and their relatives sat around them and watched them and listened to their conversations. The addicts' loved ones had to tell them how the addiction had impacted their lives. 

      DSM V criteria for addiction

      • Hazardous use (driving under influenced, blacking out)
      • Social or interpersonal problems related to use (relationship problems, conflicts with others)
      • Neglected major roles to use (failing to meet responsibilities at work/school/home)
      • Withdrawal symptoms
      • Tolerance
      • Used larger amounts/longer
      • Repeated attempts to control use or quit
      • Much time spent using
      • Physical or psychological problems related to use (cancer, liver damage, depression, anxiety)
      • Activities given up to use
      • Craving

       

      Incentive-sensitisation theory of addiction

      This theory suggest that addiction occurs due to incentive sensitization. The reason why incentive salience occurs with addiction is because the brain of the individual has become sensitized to the substance. Individuals can develop hypersensitization if they are repeatedly exposed to addictive substances. In the future the drug will stimulate neurobehavioural systems at a great intensity. The individual will get an increased level of pleasure from their drug use. This leads to incentive salience and the symptoms associated with addiction. The individual will have a strong desire for the drug that goes way beyond liking it. This will result in the repetition of the behaviour. At the same time, the unconscious forces that drive addiction will become conscious desires for using the drug. Initially it is about ‘liking’ the drug, but addiction process will gradually be dominated by stress, negative reinforcement and compulsive ‘wanting’.

       

      Anticipation effect: physical effects will appear when people think/know they are going to use drugs

      Social-cognitive learning: most people learn about alcohol/drugs through observation of others, and learn to attribute certain meaning to its use (pleasurable, exciting, reducing social anxiety)

      Learned helplessness: In adults, learned helplessness presents as a person not using or learning adaptive responses to difficult situations. People in this state typically accept that bad things will happen and that they have little control over them. They are unsuccessful in resolving issues even when there is a potential solution

       

       

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      Workgroup 7: Psychotic disorders

      Workgroup 7: Psychotic disorders

      Workgroup 7 and 8 (semester 2, 2019/2020) have been cancelled and will be done using Skype due to COVID 19. For this week the students were first required to submit potential exam questions and their answers. This task was later cancelled. Here are some examples of potential exam questions. 

       

      1. Describe the incentive-sensitisation theory of addiction using an example.

      2. Describe which dissociative symptoms can be present in a personality disorder.

      3. Which neurotransmitter plays a role in aggressive impulses?

      4. Describe the difference between axis I and axis II disorders and give an example for each. 

      5. Describe the difference between somatic symptom disorders and psychosomatic disorders.

       

       

       

      Answers

      1. 

      1) Developing hyposensitisation when someone gets in touch with addicitve substances. Someone will be less likely to experience the effects of the substance when that person uses it more often. Example: using cocaine
      2) The addictive substance the neurological system and influences one's behaviour. The person will feel more joy when using the substance. Example: feeling joy and other desirable sensations when using cocaine.
      3) Incentive salience: the urge to use the substance. It goes beyond 'liking' the substance and its effects. Example: feeling like you really need the cocaine, instead of just using it for 'fun'.
      4) Repetition of behaviour

      2. 

      Amnesia: e.g. not remembering anything that happened prior to reaching a certain age (e.g. 10 years old)
      - Depersonalisation: feeling like your body and your feelings don't belong to you
      - Hallucinations: hearing voices, seeing things, feeling sensations which aren't there. 43% of those with a personality disorder experience hallucinations

      3. Serotononin

      4. Axis I provided information about clinical disorders. Any mental health condition other than personality disorders or mental retardation would have been included in axis I. Examples of Axis I disorders are eating disorders, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, anxiety disorders, mood disorders and more. Axis II provided information about personality disorders and mental retardation. These included e.g. the personality disorders (see lecture 3) and intellectual disabilities. 

      Important note: the axis system was used in the DSM IV! 

      5. People with psychosomatic disorders have a physical illness, which is exacerbated by their psychological state. People with somatic symptom disorders do not have diseases with a physical cause. 

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