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Probably oldest drugs known to man (evidence for use in about 10.000 BC)Psychedelic = “mind revealing”Widely found in nature:Psilocybin (magic mushroom)DMT (found in every human)Mescaline (contained in cactuses)5- MEO DMT (found in certain toads)…LSD: only chemically extracted psychedelicLSD was discovered by Albert Hoffman (1943)More than 40,000 patients were administered LSD alongside therapy between 1950 and 1965. Non-toxic, non-addictive and effective clinical toolsUnderstanding of mental illness: models psychosis Psychological transformation in psychotherapy Military use1953 -Similarity found between serotonin in the brain and LSD - the birth of Neuroscience (Dr Woolley)1960’s Contra-culture - Vietnam War anti-millitary attitudes1970 Controlled Substances Act: psychedelics scheduled as illegalRenamed as psychotomimetics/halucinogens a suggesting that they are resembling psychosis (Hoffer, 1967). Mood: high arousalPerception: geometric visual patterning morphing, abstract imageryCognition: unconstrained cognition dream-like states loss of Ego/loss of sense of self divine/spiritual presence Most important receptor for all class of psychedelics: serotonin 2A – the more potent the drug, the more sticky it is with this receptorIf 2A receptor is excited by LSD, rats learn faster5-HT2AR agonism stimulate neuroplasticity in the hippocampus and the neocortexExpression of 2A receptors: mostly higher cortical areas (layer V of grey matter)Increase of serotonin will increase secretion of GABA (inhibitor) to ThalamusThalamus: in charge of filtering out irrelevant information from the outside worldPsilocybin decreases activity in higher cortical areas but brain connectivity is high (parts of the brain are more connected)In a psychedelic...
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