Emotion and Cognition - Lecture 3 notes

In the end, all our behavior is produced by the brain. Neuroscience can help remove terminological vagueness (emotion vs. cognition, basic vs. complex)Discover underlying mechanism of emotion (and psychopathology) Reptilian brain: Respiration, heart (basic bodily functions)Limbic system: store dangerous situations, hunger (adaptive survival functions)Neocortex: consciousness, reasoning, predicting the future (high-order thinking) Problem with MacLean’s view: Limbic system is present in reptilians too, and it’s similar to ours Parts: Fornix: carries information from hippocampus to hypothalamusSeptal area: pleasure, reward, reinforcement.Corpus Callosum: connects both brain hemispheres.Thalamus: relay station that determines which information can pass through to sensory areas or not. What is salient? (sleep and awake function)Hippocampus: important for delivery of information from short-term to long-term memory! No hippocampus, no new memoryHypothalamus: secretion of hormones related to arousal and sleep, direct connection to autonomic nervous systemAmygdala: Emotion regulation Functions:Evolutionary old and universal systemSimilar in different animals (incl. humans)Emotion processing: direct adaptive functions to interact with environmentNot all parts are directly involved in emotionsLimbic system is not unique in processing emotionsLimbic system helps in detecting biologically salient stimuli Not only the limbic system, but all layers are important for emotionReflexes: startle reflex (protect the eye), pain, hunger, tasteMidbrain & Limbic system: fear, anger, sadness, joy, affection, interest (reward) à very simple expressions to communicate with othersNeocortex: shame, guilt, contempt, envy, humor, empathy, sympathy à all require...

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