Emotion and Cognition - Lecture 1 notes

Emotion and Cognition Distinct states of the mind, displayed early in life (babies/innate).They are a combination of these components:Phenomenal ExperiencePhysiological PatternVerbal+ nonverbal expressionTypical expressions are distinct states of the mind, displayed early in life (babies/innate), thus hard-coded Many emotions are expressed in the human face. Some emotions are not displayed by the face (jealousy).There are some ambiguous and some clear expressions of emotion.According to Paul Ekman there are 6 basic emotional expressions (that can be mixed):Fear, anger, disgust, joy, neutral, sadness, surprise“Emotions are universal across cultures” – Paul Ekman Russell (1994): “There is low agreement about the classification of expressions” Ecological problem: Real world scenarios not taken into account (Forced-choice response format, within-subject design, preselected photographs of posed facial expressions design was pre-set by Ekman).It doesn’t make sense to make categorical classification of emotions, dimensions make more sense Elfenbein & Ambady (2002): “Emotions are universal to a limited degree”Minority groups recognize emotional expressions of majority better than the majority group themselves Friesen & Matsumoto (2000): Display rules shape emotion dependent on cultureJapanese people adapted their expressions to hide their negative emotionEmotions are flexile and they may not necessarily reflect true feelingsJapanese people tend to display more surprise Kitayama et al (2000):Positive emotions are important for Americans, and the more positive and the less negative, the better.In Japan, people who tend to have a lot of positive emotion also have a lot of negative emotion.In Japan, some positive emotions are felt more and considered more important,...

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