Extra material - Social Psychology (Smith & Mackie) to be corrected

Social Psychology from Smith & Mackie - BulletPoints


Chapter 1

  • The presence of others, the knowledge and opinions that others convey to us, and our feelings about the groups we belong to have a great influence on us through social processes, whether we are alone or with others. Our perceptions, memories, emotions and motives also influence us through cognitive processes. Effects of social and cognitive processes are inextricably linked.

  • Understanding these social processes can help us in two ways. It helps us understand why people behave in a certain way, and it helps us to solve important social problems.

  • Social psychology came up late in the 19th century. For the greater part of the 20th century, psychology was dominated by behaviorism. Social psychologists continued to emphasize the importance of thoughts and feelings on behavior. In the 1930s and 40s, many European social psychologists had an influence on the field. During this period important questions were inspired by the rise of Nazism and the Second World War. From the 1950s and 1960s, social psychology has grown significantly.

  • Two basic axioms of social psychology are 1) people create their own reality, and 2) the penetration of social influences. Three motivational principles are the need for control, the search for connectedness, and the tendency to see yourself  related others in a positive light. Three processing principles are the conservatism principle (difficult to change), the accessibility principle (which has the most impact) and the superficiality versus systematic processing principle. Collectively, these eight principles can explain all social behavior.

Chapter 2

  • A scientific theory is a statement about a causal relationship between abstract constructs. These theories are useful in developing interventions.

  • There are three types of validity: construct validity (do I measure what I want to measure?), Internal validity (is there really a causal connection?) And external validity (generalizability). Each type has its own potential pitfalls. The construct validity can be threatened by the "socially desirable answers" bias. The internal validity is mainly dependent on the research design. In non-experimental (correlational) designs other factors may be responsible for the research result. Experimental research designs, on the other hand, are often characterized by random allocation of participants to groups, and manipulation of the independent variables, in order to be able to say something about causality. With regard to external validity, field studies can limit the potential effects of demand characteristics.To ensure that there is generalizability, it is important that the research results are replicated.

  • Theories are generally accepted when the results of multiple valid studies, often summarized in a meta-analysis, state that this specific theory is superior in comparison with all other theories.

  • An informed consent is required before participants take part in an investigation. Sometimes, however, in order to prevent bias, the participant must be temporarily deceived when examining (bias) sensitive subjects. This is then always carefully explained in the "debriefing".

Chapter 3

  • The perception of others starts with visible cues, including the physical appearance, the non-verbal communication, the environment they create, the environment in which they are located, and the expressed (observable) behavior.

  • Familiarity through the "mere exposure effect" also influences our impressions. This usually leads to the fact that we automatically find a person nice.

  • Especially cues that stand out, are salient, have a lot of influence on our impressions.

  • Cues have no value in themselves, but are automatically interpreted in the context of our mental representations about people, behaviors, characteristics and social situation. A representation that is associated with the cue itself or that is accessible is often used when interpreting cues. Accessibility is influenced by expectation, mood, situational context, and / or "priming" - even when it is subliminal.

  • When people who process superficially often make corresponding interferences, there also exists a correspondence bias.

  • To make a causal attribution for behavior, systematic processing is required. Even impressions made with the help of systematic processing do not have to be accurate (here too, biases are present).

  • An impression forms the basis for judgments and behavior and often leads to a "self-fulfilling prophecy".

  • Impressions are often difficult to change, partly due to the "primacy effect".

Chapter 4

  • Defining the "self" is often done according to self-perception theory, in which we derive our properties from our behavior. Social comparisons also play a role in this definition. These comparisons can lead to contrast effects or assimilation effects.

  • Our self-knowledge is richer and more detailed than knowledge we possess about others. People often explain their own behavior and other people's behavior differently. This is also called "actor-observer differences in attribution".

  • Self-knowledge is organized in several self-aspects. The number of self-aspects and the diversity of these aspects together form the self-complexity.

  • The self-esteem is strongly influenced by the pressure to think well about yourself. This motivation has a lot of influence through the "self-enhancing biases". Events affect our self-esteem, but we try to include more positive than negative experiences in determining our self-esteem. According to the self-evaluation maintenance theory, we also compare ourselves with others.

  • " Self-enhancement" happens for two primary reasons: by actually improving it yourself (successful self-regulation), or by protecting ourselves from stress and threats to our self-esteem.

  • The self influences many aspects of life, such as emotions and behavior. It is used for one of these two purposes: self-expression or self-presentation. The degree of self-monitoring reflects the extent to which we pursue one or the other.

  • The "regulatory focus" theory describes how people maintain their desirable state, or avoid the undesirable state, for example by comparing it with their "ideal self" or the "intended self".

  • Coping strategies are used when people are faced with threats. There are two types of strategies: emotion-oriented strategies and problem-oriented strategies. Personal sources (including self-esteem) and characteristics of the threatening situation determine the best choice.

Chapter 5

  • Discrimination and prejudice are everyday problems. Both social and cognitive factors contribute to prejudice. One source is stereotyping.

  • Social categorization is useful because it allows us to deal efficiently and correctly with others. It also ensures that we feel connected to others. But it confines people to similarities and differences, making it the basis for stereotyping.

  • Stereotypes can be positive or negative.

  • Stereotypes can be learned through personal experiences with group members, but can still be distorted by, for example, emotions during inter-group interactions, classical conditioning or the extra attention that is focused on extremes. This can produce an "illusory correlation".

  • Social roles often determine people's behavior, but others often attribute behavior to the inner characteristics of that person.

  • Social learning also contributes to the formation of stereotypes. Stereotypes and discrimination are a social norm of some groups.

  • Stereotypes and prejudices can be activated by clear cues, the use of group labels, or the presence of a group member. Some stereotypes and prejudices form automatically.

  • Stereotypes and prejudices are often examined with implicit measurements.

  • Stereotypes and prejudices can be reduced according to the contact hypothesis. Contact, however, is not always enough. Sometimes a new subtype is created in order to place the exceptions of the stereotype.

Chapter 6

  • By categorizing yourself as a group member a social identity can arise.

  • Learning within the own group mainly occurs through observation. Our knowledge of our group membership can be activated by direct reminders (such as group labels), by the presence of out-group members (one is enough), by being in the minority group, or by conflicts between groups.

  • The typical characteristics of the group become criteria for the behavior. The group membership influences the self-concept and self-esteem. Relatively small groups have the greatest effects on the feelings of their members.

  • People like in-group members and treat them in a fair way, because they see them as equal in their goals and interests. You see them as more variable than out-group members. The "out-group homogeneity effect", on the other hand, means that your out-group members are all deemd to be in one place. Depending on how threatening they are for the in-group, you find them less nice and you discriminate against them. If the out-group is only slightly different from the in-group, you will find them only slightly less nice. This effect already takes place in a minimal intergroup situation. The social identity theory states that this in-group bias comes mainly because people derive their self-esteem from their group membership.

  • When there is a stereotypical threat, the negative stereotype of a person's skill can become a self-fulfilling prediction.

  • Being a member of a stigmatized group automatically poses a threat to self-esteem. You can protect yourself against this by attributing the negative evaluation (s) of others to prejudices, or by making the most of social comparisons with other in-group members. If these strategies do not work, individual mobility strategies can be used. Sometimes social creativity strategies are applied. Finally, attempts can be made to bring about social change by entering into the social competition.

Chapter 7

  • Implicit attitudes may differ from explicit attitudes.

  • People use attitudes because they are useful. This way attitudes can help in the need for control. This is done through knowledge and instrumental functions, through social identity and through impression management functions.

  • People combine all important and accessible positive and negative pieces of information (cognitive, affective and behavioral) to form an attitude. This combination determines the value (positive or negative) and intensity of the attitude and can create a strong or ambivalent attitude.

  • When people are faced with convincing messages, they often pay little attention to this. An attitude change can be achieved by superficial characteristics of the message. Think of evaluative conditioning, the "mere exposure effect", and conviction heuristics.

  • When people think carefully about convincing messages, it is the systematic (and not the superficial) processing that can effect the change in attitudes. Think of metacognition. A change in attitudes thus created is then more difficult to change than an attitude change as a result of superficial processing.

  • According to several theories, including the "elaboration likelihood model" (ELM), people are only inclined to systematically process information when they have both the motivation and the cognitive capacity to do so. The motivation is high when the message has personal relevance. The cognitive capacity is available when people have the ability to systematically process and are not distracted.

  • Messages that suit someone are motivation and capacity are most convincing. People often use a combination of superficial and systematic processing, which creates an interesting interaction between cues and content.

  • People protect their attitudes by ignoring, reinterpreting or resisting inconsistent information. It is easier to resist convincing messages if you have had to deal with such arguments before and / or have been warned beforehand. Many people overestimate their ability to withstand convincing messages.

Chapter 8

  • Behavior is an important part of information on which people base their attitudes. When behavior changes, attitudes can also change. When processing is superficial (and people lack the motivation or capacity), attitudes can be based on associations with actions, or conclusions of actions. Think of the "foot-between-the-door" technique.

  • When voluntary actions are in conflict with important attitudes, cognitive dissonance arises. This dissonance can lead you to take actions to have your attitude match the behavior again. Examples are the "insufficient justification" effect, the "effort justification" effect, or the "post-decisional regret" effect. This kind of attitude change requires systematic processing, but is of a long-term nature.

  • Attitudes can directly influence behavior. Attitudes can distort perceptions, with attitude-consistent information being noticed more quickly and attitude-consistent behavior becoming more likely. Attitudes can also indirectly influence behavior through intentions.

  • Attitudes will have an influence on behavior when the attitude is accessible and when it strongly corresponds to the behavior (the right attitude at the right moment). Accessibility can be increased by careful consideration, self-awareness, or frequent use.

  • Implicit attitudes better predict uncontrolled behaviors, while explicit attitudes better predict controlled behavior.

  • Sometimes attitudes are not enough to steer the behavior. The behavior will rather represent attitudes when people believe they have control over their behavior.

Chapter 9

  • Through interaction and communication between group members, their thoughts, feelings and behaviors become increasingly similar.

  • There are two types of social standards: "descriptive" standards and "injunctive" standards.

  • Conformity occurs mainly for two reasons: because people believe that the group is right, and because they want the group to accept / approve them. Usually there is private conformity to group norms. Sometimes, however, there is only public conformity.

  • Private compliance occurs because we expect to see the world in the same way as others (think of the "false consensus effect"). This gives us certainty.

  • A group can have informational influence and / or normative influence.

  • People are inclined to agree with reference groups.

  • Group discussions often involve group polarization. Sometimes superficial processing is responsible for this. When people systematically process, the positions and arguments of the others work together to polarize the group norm.

  • Majority arguments are often more in number, discussed more, seem more convincing, and more convincing. As a result, the position of the majority is often more convincing.

  • Sometimes a consensus is not validly reached. This is the case when there is dependence on other people's views, pollution of the consensus through shared biases, and / or public conformity. Pluralistic ignorance can be the result. When these factors are circumvented, the need for control and connectedness work together to achieve a valid consensus.

  • Group thinking can be avoided by ensuring that 1) alternatives are not simply thrown out of the table, 2) by being independent of other people's positions, and 3) by private conformity.

  • In order for a minority message to be convincing, the minority must propose an alternative consensus, remain consistent, find a good balance between similarities and differences in comparison with the majority, and encourage systematic processing.

  • Multiple and minority groups influence each other through the same processes. Both can meet the need for control and connectedness, both of which can promote a heuristic or systematic processing of the evidence, and both can bring about public conformity or private conformity.

  • The best way to reach a consensus is to promote standards that focus on critical group thinking.

Chapter 10

  • Standards must be activated before they can send behavior. They can be activated by direct reminders, cues from the environment, or observations of other people's behavior. In the case of the individualization, it is mainly the group standards that are quickly activated.

  • One of the most common social norms is the standard of reciprocity. Since the making of concessions is also included here, this partly explains the effectiveness of the "foot-between-the-door" strategy. Another common social norm is the standard of social reciprocity. This makes people especially sensitive to the "low-ball" technique.

  • The standard of obedience to authorities is best known in the context of Milgram's study from 1961.

  • Attitudes and norms normally work together in order to influence behavior. Which of the two has more influence depends on their relative accessibility.

Chapter 11

  • Excitement ("arousal") by the presence of others can influence the performance positively or negatively. When it comes to easy, well-trained behavior, the presence of others often leads to an improvement in performance. When it is an untrained task or a complex task, the performance is negatively influenced by someone else's presence. This pattern is called social facilitation.

  • The excitement is the result of two possible causes: we are evaluated by others, or we are distracted by them.

  • Members within face-to-face groups share both task interdependence and social interdependence. Such groups often go through multiple phases in their relationship.

  • To achieve goals, groups must retain their motivation and remain coordinated. "Social loafing" must be avoided. Communication within the group and shared emotions can influence group performance. Developing a shared social identity is probably the most important thing. Sometimes the opposite of "social loafing" can take place: social compensation.

  • Effective leadership improves job performance and retains social interdependence. The ways in which leaders do this differs from situation to situation. Think of the "contingency theories of leadership".

  • Sometimes stereotypical thinking ensures that the best leaders in a group are not appointed as leaders.

Chapter 12

  • The disadvantage of studying attraction, relationships and love is that this must be investigated in non-experimental studies, whereby ambiguity continues to exist about the causal relations between variables. Most studies have also focused on romantic relationships between (young) heterosexual couples in individualistic cultures.

  • Our perception of physical attractiveness, which gives us signals of genetic health and access to sources, is quite similar between cultures. Other features that make people more attractive depend on experience, exposure and expectations.

  • Similarities can strengthen the attraction. People are also attracted to those with whom they have positive interactions. People make interactions, offer opportunities for imitation and adaptation and help people in meeting their need for control and connectedness.

  • Most relationships start as exchange relations. Self-disclosures offer the opportunity for sympathetic, supportive reactions. In a close relationship there is interdependence on cognitive, behavioral and affective level. The behavioral interdependency manifests itself in the transition from an exchange relationship to a mutual relationship.

  • Intimacy and dedication are important characteristics that maintain the relationship.

  • People have different attachment styles that affect their close relationships.

  • The social context of a romantic relationship, especially whether it is short or long-term, determines the qualities people seek in their sexual partner. Just like other enjoyable joint activities, sex can strengthen a relationship, but it can also be a topic of conflict.

  • Relationships can be threatened because interdependence inevitably leads to conflicts, and because external factors, social norms and the actual or perceived presence of rivals can cause problems. People have different patterns of accommodation in how they deal with conflicts or negative behavior of a partner.

  • There are many sources that promote constructive accommodations, including a secure attachment style, a high degree of dedication, idealisation of the partner, and positive beliefs about the relationship.

Chapter 13

  • Aggression is often the result of conflicts or incompatible goals. There are two types of aggression: hostile aggression and instrumental aggression.

  • Aggression can be difficult to investigate experimentally, because people often do not want to behave aggressively when they are observed. Researchers use different techniques to circumvent this problem.

  • Many factors can incite aggression. Sometimes a need for control is the reason for aggression. Potential rewards make this type of aggression more likely, while costs or risks make it more unlikely. Sometimes an observed provocation such as a threat to self-worth or a threat of connectedness is a trigger. Also think of the frustration-aggression theory. Standards, seeing aggressive behavior among others and cues that promote the accessibility of aggression-related thoughts can also make aggression more likely.

  • Groups are generally more competitive and aggressive than individuals.

  • Group conflicts often come through struggles for material sources (according to the realistic conflict theory) or social rewards (such as respect and self-esteem).

  • Groups in conflict often attach much more importance to social rewards than to material rewards.

  • According to the relative deprivation theory, both individuals and groups use social comparisons to determine acceptable levels of sources.

  • If the conflict escalates further, there is a big chance of "reactive devaluation" on proposals from the out-group.

  • Reducing aggression and conflict can be achieved by promoting non-aggression-related norms, minimizing or removing cues that promote aggression, and promoting careful interpretation of (and identification with) others.

  • Achieving a solution through negotiation requires mutual understanding and trust. If the discussion is not productive, for example due to cultural differences, a third party can be called in.

  • Conflict resolution can also be promoted by having groups work together in achieving "superordinate" goals.

  • Under the right circumstances, conflict can be reduced through collaborative inter-group interaction.

Chapter 14

  • Behavior that is meant to help someone else can take different forms (for example help, but also cooperation).

  • Prosocial behavior has multiple motives, such as altruism or selfishness.

  • Providing help is mainly dependent on the extent to which the nurse sees the other person as needing help (the help is needed) and / or earning help. In the latter, people are more likely to help people who are not responsible for their own suffering, and who therefore deserve the help.

  • The skill and motivation to pay attention to someone's needs influences the perception of whether the help is needed.

  • Sometimes people help because social norms or the behavior of others makes them think that helping is the right thing to do. However, the presence of other potential helpers can lead to a diffusion of responsibility. While some standards counteract help behavior, other norms, such as the standard of social responsibility, are pro-support behavior.

  • Evolutionary principles suggest that some forms of assistive behavior, such as reciprocal support behavior or helping their own offspring, are naturally selected because they increase the chance of survival. In humans, however, there are cognitive and social processes that influence such biological drives.

  • Help behavior can be promoted when the helper perceives potential rewards, but can also be depressed when there are risks or costs associated with the assistance behavior. Such rewards and risks can also be emotional in nature.

  • Two theories that go deeper into the why (people show support behavior) are the "negative-state relief" model and the "empathy-altruism" model.

Social Psychology by Smith et al. - Practice questions

Chapter 1 Social psychology

  1. Scientific methods contain (1) distortions and thereby give (2) an image of reality.

  1. (1) more, (2) an adequate

  2. (1) less, (2) an adequate

  3. (1) more, (2) no adequate

  4. (1) less, (2) no adequate


  1. Explain the difference between social processes and cognitive processes.


  1. Who did the first research into social psychology and with this research showed that performance is influenced by the presence of others?

  1. Lewin

  2. Clifford

  3. Knapp

  4. Tripplet


  1. Name the three principles with regard to motivation.


  1. Name the three different types of processing processes.

Chapter 2: Working with research questions

  1. A scientific theory must meet three requirements. Which of the following does NOT belong here?

  1. It is a description of causal relationships between constructs

  2. The theories are general

  3. The theory must be able to rule out everything else

  4. It's about constructs


  1. What is a known threat to the construct validity of a test?

  1. Socially desirable answer bias

  1. Mere-exposure effect

  1. Correspondence bias

  1. Primacy effect  


  1. Describe the meaning of internal validity.


  1. Describe the meaning of external validity.


  1. Name and explain three threats for external validity.


Chapter 3 Observing individuals

  1. Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect:

  1. Cognitive representations can be about people, situations and social groups.

  2. Physically attractive people are more often expected to be less social, warm and interesting than people who are physically less attractive.

  3. Non verbal indications, such as movements and pitch, are important cues when assessing whether someone is speaking the truth.

  4. As soon as a corresponding interference is not justified, this is also called the fundamental attribution error.

  5. Two cognitive representations can already be linked if no association has been formed yet.


  1. Explain the mere-exposure effect, what does this have to do with liking ?


  1. Describe the meaning of corresponding interferences, when are they justified?


  1. What is a self-fulfilling prophecy?


  1. Explain the difference between systematic and superficial processing.


  1. On the basis of Kelley's idea (1967), a distinction is made between three categories with respect to causal attributions, which is NOT part of this?

  1. Consensus

  2. Distinction

  3. Consistency

  4. Covariance


  1. Generally speaking, people from a Western culture are more focused on property-based explanations (1), while people from Asian cultures seek more in social relations (2).

  1. (1) correct, (2) correct

  2. (1) incorrect, (2) correct

  3. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  4. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect


  1. Name the three steps that can be distinguished when assessing behaviors and events.


  1. In general, negative information seems more extreme and informative than positive information (1). This is also called the positivity effect (2).

  1. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  2. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  3. (1) correct, (2) correct

  4. (1) incorrect, (2) correct


  1. Explain the perseverance or perseverance bias.


  1. Within the systematic processing the evaluation of the characteristics of an individual can take place in different ways. An example of this is:

  1. the configuration method

  2. the corresponding method

  3. the semantic method

  4. the algebraic method


  1. Explain the role of culture in adjusting inconsistent information.


Chapter 4 The self

  1. The self-insight consists of two parts, mention them.


  1. Describe the meaning of self-perception theory.


  1. Research shows that people, especially children, behave exactly like how they are described by others (1). This effect is greatest in people who have not yet developed their self-concept very well, or are uncertain about this (2).

  1. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  2. (1) incorrect, (2) correct

  3. (1) correct, (2) correct

  4. (1) correct, (2) incorrect


  1. The researcher Festinger is known, among other things, from:

  1. The looking glass self

  2. The self-concept theory

  3. The social equation theory

  4. The idea behind the actor-observer differs in attribution


  1. Name the causes for the occurrence of the actor-observer differences in attribution.


  1. Explain the meaning of self-elevation distortion.


  1. Making comparisons between himself and others is important for the evaluation of himself. The result, which can be positive or negative, depends on two of the following factors:

  1. The importance of the attribute in question

  2. The frame of reference of the person himself

  3. The closeness with the comparator

  4. The interaction with the comparison person

  1. I. and II are correct

  2. I. and III are correct

  3. II. and III are correct

  4. II. and IV are correct


  1. Explain what is meant by the self-concept.


  1. Describe what appraisals are.


  1. Apart from directing emotions, appraisals can also influence other behavioral reactions (1). Appraisals are culture determined (2).

  1. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  2. (1) incorrect, (2) correct

  3. (1) correct, (2) correct

  4. (1) correct, (2) incorrect


  1. Explain the concept of self-guides and indicate which two forms there are.


  1. What is self-discrepancy and which two factors increase awareness of discrepancies?


  1. Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect:

  1. Short-term goals that overshadow the long-term goals, together with the depletion of our sources, can lead to a reduction in self-regulation.

  2. Self-expression is a motivation to opt for behavior that is aimed at creating a certain impression of yourself in others. It influences the impressions that others have about us and that we have about ourselves.

  3. Self-presentation is a motivation to opt for behavior that ensures that the self-concept is displayed and expressed.

  4. Threats of the self can not result in physical suffering.

  5. The consequences of learned helplessness include depression, low self-esteem and pessimism.


  1. People who have a high self-monitor really want to meet the requirements of the situation and will therefore do more self-presentation (1). Low self-monitors prefer to show who they are and mainly do self-expression (2).

  1. (1) correct, (2) correct

  2. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  3. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  4. (1) incorrect, (2) correct


  1. There are several known threats to the self, which of the following possibilities does NOT belong here?

  1. Inconsistencies

  2. Discard control

  3. The awareness of our mortality

  4. None of the above answers


  1. What is emotion-focused coping and mention the three most important examples of such a strategy.


  1. What is problem-oriented coping and mention three of the five important examples of this coping strategy.


Chapter 5 Observing groups

  1. Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect:

  1. Research shows that stereotypes based on sex are held stronger and with more conviction than ethnic stereotypes.

  2. Stereotypes are inaccurate when the stereotype is seen as applicable to each group member.

  3. Research has shown that tinted people are more often represented as victims of crime and white people more often as victims.

  4. Information that is heard from second-hand generally contains more stereotyping than first-hand information.

  5. Sex stereotyping comes about because men are more inclined than women to behave according to their roles.


  1. Uncomfortable encounters with new groups are transferred to the group itself, when interaction with a group often goes together with specific emotions (1). This is also called evaluative / classic conditioning (2).

  1. (1) incorrect, (2) correct

  2. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  3. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  4. (1) correct, (1) correct


  1. Name three factors that can lead to more stereotyping.


  1. Name three factors that prevent the formation of stereotypes.


  1. The interaction (contact?) Hypothesis is that stereotypes can be reduced or even completely disappear when members from different groups come into contact with each other (1). Conversion is the idea that a stereotype can change / disappear by a single inconsistent experience (2).

  1. (1) correct, (2) correct

  2. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  3. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  4. (1) incorrect, (2) correct


  1. Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect:

  1. Subtyping is the formation of more specific social groups belonging to a broader social group (eg students in the group of women).

  2. Contrast stereotype behavior is behavior that is not consistent with the stereotype.

  3. Contrast stereotype behavior only plays a minor role in changing stereotypes.

  4. Research has shown that negative feelings towards a group can be reduced if someone from your own group has a friendship with someone from the other group.

  5. One can, among other things, become aware of group membership as soon as there are people present who do not belong to their own group.


Chapter 6 Social identity

  1. Explain what bask is in reflected glory (BIRG).


  1. When there is expected behavior, people tend to use less abstract language, so the behavior seems to be linked to certain characteristics (1). In contrast, people from the in-group are generally treated more honestly and altruistically (2).

  1. (1) correct, (2) correct

  2. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  3. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  4. (1) incorrect, (2) correct


  1. Explain the outgroup homogeneity effect


  1. What is cross-race identification bias?


  1. Name three explanations for the outgroup homogeneity effect.


  1. Name the four factors that can explain ethnic conflicts.


  1. Explain the social identity theory.


  1. Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect:

  1. Dissociation is focused on psychological distance, while disidentification is focused on physical distance.

  2. Stereotype threat is the fear of people to confirm an existing stereotype and can provide self-fulfilling prophecy (self-affirmative prediction).

  3. If protection strategies of self-esteem prove to be ineffective, one can proceed to individual mobility.

  4. Social creativity means that as soon as it is clear that somewhere a negative image prevails, other characteristics are emphasized.

  5. Cross categorization means that people on one dimension belong to their own group while they belong to the other group on other dimensions.


Chapter 7 Attitudes and their change

  1. Name the two reasons for forming attitudes.


  1. In the independent culture the emphasis is on the existence of the individual and the difference between individuals (1). In the interdependent culture attitudes reinforce the existence of the group and the associated group feeling (2).

  1. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  2. (1) incorrect, (2) correct

  3. (1) correct, (2) correct

  4. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect


  1. The formation of attitudes happens through three principles, name them.


  1. The attraction heuristic suggests that people agree more quickly with people who are considered attractive or attractive (1). In the use of persuasion heuristics, the case requires less rapid evaluation and a lot of time and effort in the evaluation (2).

  1. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  2. (1) incorrect, (2) correct

  3. (1) correct, (2) correct

  4. (1) correct, (2) incorrect


 58. Explain the expertise heuristic.


 59. Explain the length of the message heuristics.


  1. Name the four different steps of systematic processing.


  1. Superficial and systematic processing is influenced by (1) and (2).

  1. (1) motivation, (2) available time

  2. (1) motivation, (2) capacity

  3. (1) available time, (2) capacity

  4. None of the above answers


  1. The extent of the use of superficial processing has to do with various factors, which is NOT part of this?

  1. Difference in personalities

  2. Moods and emotions

  3. The degree of perceived fear

  4. Intellect


  1. Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect:

  1. Contrast is a process in which deviant information from the attitude is interpreted as unequal to the attitude.

  2. Contrast is also called assimilation.

  3. Research showed that consistent and inconsistent information is equally well remembered.

  4. In general, it is easier to discard inconsistent information, so that consistent information is left in greater numbers.

  5. Sublimal persuasion is the persuasion in which one is influenced by conscious stimuli.


Chapter 8 Behavior and attitudes

  1. Explain the self-perception theory.


  1. Explain the foot in the door technique.


  1. There are four steps in the realization of dissonance and change in attitudes, call them.


  1. Name the five basic principles of justification for behaviors that are in conflict with attitudes.


  1. In an interdependent culture, dissonance will be attributed less to itself than in an independent culture (1). In an interdependent culture, a bad choice is not nearly as threatening to the self as in an independent culture, and inconsistencies therefore less often cause dissonance (2).

  1. (1) incorrect, (2) correct

  2. (2) correct, (2) incorrect

  3. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  4. (1) correct, (2) correct  


  1. If attitudes influence behavior in an overweight way, one deliberately attempts to make behavior consistent with attitudes. This process can be divided into four steps, name them.


  1. Making attitudes accessible is possible in three different ways, which of the following ways is NOT included?

  1. Semi automatic

  2. Deliberately

  3. Through self-awareness

  4. Automatically


  1. People behave according to (relevant) accessible attitudes because it is easier to rely on attitudes than simply taking decisions somewhere (1). If one thinks to be able to direct one's own behavior, attitudes are inefficient (2).

  1. (1) correct, (2) correct

  2. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  3. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  4. (1) incorrect, (2) correct


Chapter 9 Standards and groups

  1. Explain the difference between social groups and face-to-face groups.


  1. Explain what social norms are.


  1. A distinction is made between two types of ways of influencing, call it.


  1. Explain what these two ways of influencing mean.


  1. Conformity to a group takes place both when members of the group are present and when they are not present (1). Depolarization is the effect in which the final outcome of a group is more moderate than the opinions of the individuals prior to the discussion (2).

  1. (1) correct, (2) correct

  2. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  3. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  4. (1) incorrect, (2) correct


  1. Explain what polarization is.


  1. Explain the concept of 'risky shift'.


  1. Name the three reasons why one can not always rely on a consensus.


  1. There are three characteristics of group thinking, which of the following is NOT part of this?

  1. Pluralistic ignorance

  2. Consensus can be obtained without acceptance within public conformation.

  3. Situations in which consensus is reached while little thought has been given to the evidence of it.

  4. Consensus can be contaminated because the opinions of the members are not independent of each other.


  1. Double minorities are groups of people who have a different opinion of the rest of the group and also clearly differ from the majority (1). Despite the fact that group members can give positive identities from the majority, not everyone wants to count themselves in a certain group (2).

  1. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  2. (1) correct, (2) correct

  3. (1) incorrect, (2) correct

  4. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect


Chapter 10 Behavior and social norms

  1. Name four reasons why people behave according to social norms.


  1. Explain the concept of the individualization and indicate what this can lead to.


  1. Which method is NOT designed to activate the standard of reciprocity for concessions?

  1. The door-in-the-face technique

  2. The 'that's-not-all' technique

  3. The 'selling the top of the line' technique

  4. The low-ball technique


  1. Which experiment is based on the obedience standard and what happened in this experiment?


  1. Explain the concept of reactance.


  1. According to which concept is the behavior influenced by attitudes, norms and observing controllability?

  1. Self-fulfilling prophecy

  2. Theory of planned behavior

  3. Correspondence interference

  4. Perseverance theory


  1. The degree of importance of physical attraction differs between people with different self-monitor personality. Explain the difference in this area between low self-monitor personalities and high self-monitor personalities.


Chapter 11 Friendships and (love) relationships

  1. Indicate to what extent there is a gender difference in the importance of physical attractiveness.


  1. Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect:

  1. It can be stated that interaction, equality and nice are separate processes that reinforce each other.

  2. There is hardly any gender difference in self-disclosures in a relationship.

  3. Women find intimacy and self-conceit very important, while men find fun joint activities with the partner the most important.

  4. Voluntary marriages generally show a decrease in love, while love in relationships in which one is married off actually increases.

  5. The absence of social support, the emotional and physical means that others can offer, in women can cause miscommunication.


  1. Generally, there are three different factors that are involved in creating and maintaining commitments, call them.


  1. Name the four different attachment styles where a distinction is generally made.


  1. Relationships are often broken because people feel that they do not get enough psychological support from the partner (1). People with an anxious or preoccupied attachment style are often inclined to have more passionate feelings than people with a different attachment style (2).

  1. (1) correct, (2) correct

  2. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  3. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  4. (1) incorrect, (2) correct


  1. People with different attachment styles show a different way of dealing with conflicts, explain why.


  1. Give two examples of destructive responses.


  1. Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect:

  1. Men end relationships more often than women because men experience more pain and misery in conflicts.

  2. Research shows that women often remain in a violent relationship because of the quality of alternatives and their investments in the relationship.

  3. When loneliness is devoted to internal qualities, loneliness is easier to overcome than when loneliness is attributed to verifiable causes.

  4. People who are securely attached do not experience many jealous feelings, while preoccupied people often feel jealousy.

  5. Conflicts can be reduced by a combination of avoiding generalizations about the partner and the communication of feelings.


Chapter 12 Group interaction

  1. Explain what social facilitation is.


  1. Task interdependence is reliance on other group members for success of results arising from the task of the group and is especially important in secondary groups (1). The trust that one has in other group members for feelings of solidarity, social and emotional rewards and a (positive) social identity is called social interdependence and is mainly dependent on primary groups (2)

    1.(1) incorrect, (2) correct
    2. 2. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect
    3. (1) correct, (2) incorrect
    4. (1) correct, (2) correct

  2. Group socialization is a process of evaluation and dedication and has several phases, which of the following phases is NOT part of this?


1. The exploration phase

2. The research phase

3. The socialization phase

4. The maintenance phase

  1. In addition to the previous phases that group members go through with respect to the group, they also run through different phases in relation to each other, and call these phases.


  1. There are three types of interdependency to distinguish, name them.


  1. In general, several people can do more than someone alone. But two people can not necessarily do twice as much as someone alone. What are the two causes of this?


  1. Collaborating groups provide three things, which is NOT part of this?

  1. The encouragement of cooperation

  2. The exercise of social influence

  3. Holding good members

  4. An improved performance


  1. Indicate whether the following statements are correct or incorrect:

  1. Length, origin, sex and the amount of talking someone is often seen as good indicators for leadership.

  2. A self-fulfilling prophecy is the effect that someone behaves according to the expectations / ideas someone else has about him or her.

  3. In general, charismatic leaders seem to be able to ensure a high degree of cohesion between group members.

  4. A centralized network is more effective in solving complex problems.

  5. Through the intervention of computers, the coming to a consensus is delayed.


  1. Explain what is meant by the contingency theories of leadership.


Chapter 13 Conflict situations

  1. There are two types of aggression to distinguish, call it.


  1. Especially insecure people who have a high level of self-confidence often show emotional aggression (1). The frustration-aggression theory states that not every form of frustration evokes aggression (2).

  1. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  2. (1) incorrect, (2) correct

  3. (1) correct, (2) correct

  4. (1) correct, (2) incorrect


  1. What is the realistic conflict theory?


  1. Selfish relative deprivation is the idea that you as an individual are less good than others (1). Especially polarization and dedication processes ensure that there is a competitive tendency between groups (2).

  1. (1) correct, (2) correct

  2. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  3. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  4. (1) incorrect, (2) correct


  1. There are different types of solutions to conflicts, call them.


  1. Explain what reactive devaluation is.


  1. Superordinate goals are goals that can only be achieved through cooperation of two or more groups, there are five conditions under which cooperation makes sense. Name them.


Chapter 14 Help behavior and cooperation

  1. Explain the difference between altruism and selfishness.


  1. What is the negative-state relief model or helping?


  1. Explain the empathy altruism model.


  1. There are two main types of social dilemmas, call them.

  1. Explain what priming is.


  1. Help behavior has different motives, name three.


  1. Auxiliary behavior appears to rely mainly on the personality of the helper rather than on situational factors (1). As soon as the requesting user does not have the possibility to do something back for the helper, help is perceived as negative (2).

  1. (1) correct, (2) correct

  2. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  3. (1) incorrect, (2) incorrect

  4. (1) incorrect, (2) correct


  1. There are a number of ways to promote prosocial behavior and help behavior.


121. Explain the process of cognitive dissonance, how do people try to prevent this?



Chapter 1 Social psychology

  1. b. (1) less, (2) an adequate 

  1. Social processes are the ways in which thoughts, behaviors and feelings are influenced by other people. Cognitive processes are the ways in which we use different cognitive aspects (eg memories, thoughts, emotions and perceptions) to guide our understanding of the world and the behaviors that follow.

  1. d. Tripplet

  1. The principles with regard to motivation:

  • The pursuit of control

  • The search for connectedness

  • The appreciation of me and mine

  1. Processing processes:

  • Conservatism

  • Accessibility

  • Superficial vs. Deep

Chapter 2 Working with research questions

  1. c. The theory must be able to rule out everything else

  1. a. Socially desirable answer bias

  1. On the basis of internal validity it can be stated whether changes in the independent variable actually bring about changes in the dependent variable. Internal validity can be guaranteed through the use of an experimental research design.

  1. External validity relates to the generalizability of the results from a research and ensures that results actually say something about a large group of people.

  1. Threats to external validity:

  • The kind of people that participate in the research, the type of people that participate in a study determines whether the research paints a correct representation of the intended population.

  • The difference in cultures, this is in line with the previous threat of validity and is important for the generalizability of the results.

  • The place where an investigation was conducted, this means that the place where the research was conducted also influences validity. The place must be representative of the actual location of the target population.

Chapter 3 Observing individuals

11. Answers:

  1. right

  2. incorrect

  3. right

  4. right

  5. incorrect

  1. The mere-exposure effect is the effect that makes fame a foundation for developing positive expectations and feelings towards someone else. This also causes an increase in liking .

  1. In the case of corresponding interferences, someone is characterized on the basis of the displayed behavior to link a personality property so that someone's (inner) qualities are attuned to the behavior of that person. This corresponding interference is only right once the person:

  • Voluntarily shows the relevant behavior

  • When the behavior has few effects that distinguishes itself from other actions

  • When the behavior is unexpectedly displayed.

  1. A self-full-filling prophecy is when someone starts to behave according to the behavior that is expected of him or her. For example: when a teacher gives particular pupils extra attention and says that they are very smart, the children will perform better.

  1. Systematic processing is processing that leads to a judgment and that comes about as soon as attention is paid to a large amount of information that may be relevant for forming a complete opinion. As soon as there is systematic processing, people make use of causal attributions for the behavior.

  1. d. Covariance

  1. a. (1) correct, (1) correct

  1. Three steps:

  • The behavior is labeled

  • The person is characterized

  • Correcting corresponding interferences

  1. b. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  1. Even if a person is aware that a previous impression is not correct or not correct, the primacy effect (in which the interpretation of later behaviors or events is influenced by first impressions) can still have an effect.

  1. d. the algebraic method

  1. In general, the choice is initially made to leave inconsistent information to the left. But even when an attempt is made to prevent this inconsistent information, it is possible that the impressions will not be changed for the time being. In general, a real change is only possible when actively looking for changes in an individual. This, too, appears to be culturally dependent. In Western cultures, people are less willing to see an individual as changeable than in Asian cultures.

Chapter 4 The self

  1. The self-insight consists of two parts:

  • The self-concept, which means what we know about ourselves.

  • The self-esteem, which means what we think about ourselves.

  1. The self-perception theory is the theory in which it is assumed that people make interferences about their character traits on the basis of their own behavior. This process takes place only if there are no strong inner thoughts / feelings about that part of ourselves.

  1. a. (1) correct, (2) correct

  1. c. the social equation theory

  1. The causes for the occurrence of the actor-observer differ in attribution:

  • What attracts attention is noticeable (this is also called salience). In our own behavior, the cause that you do something on, not your own behavior. In someone else this seems to work exactly the other way around because there is the behavior that stands out and the cause is much more difficult to trace.

  • The use of different causal alternatives that are used to describe the behavior of ourselves and that of others.

  • You often explain your own behavior on the basis of your own views, while often explaining someone else's behavior (unjustly) from something less direct.

  1. As soon as the self-esteem is increased by making their performances and characteristics more beautiful than they really are, the self-elevation distortion is also mentioned.

  1. b. I. and III.

  1. Self-concept is the stable construct that reflects its own knowledge about personal qualities. Because it is a stable construct, it is difficult to change. In addition, the self-concept is a kind of framework in which general information about others is processed and stored.

  1. An appraisal is a flexible interpretation of an event, in which the causes and consequences for the self are central. Appraisals of the cause of an event do not always have to be correct and can be different about situations.

  1. c. (1) correct, (2) correct

  1. Self-guides are personal standards that are pursued. The two different forms of self-guides are:

  • Ideal self, the person we would like to be

  • Ought self, the person we should be

  1. Self-discrepancy usually works as a motivation to achieve our goals, but leads to negative emotions and lower self-esteem. There are two factors that increase the awareness of discrepancies:

  • People with a larger self-focus are more aware of possible discrepancies. In addition, they are often more concerned with the way they can deal with it.

  • Self-focus leads to self-awareness, whereby attention is focused on internal standards.

  1. Answers:

    1. right

    2. incorrect

    3. incorrect

    4. incorrect

    5. right

  1. a. (1) correct, (2) correct

  1. d. None of the above answers

  1. Defending against threats of the self are called coping strategies. People with a high self-esteem, in contrast to people with low self-esteem, have a lot of strategies to deal with threats against the self. Emotion-focused coping strategies are mainly used in uncontrollable situations. The three main examples of such a strategy:

  • Escape the threatening situation mentally or physically

  • Self-expression; expressing feelings in threatening situations

  • Emphasizing positive characteristics and camouflaging negative characteristics

  1. Problem-oriented coping: addressing a threatening situation, this can be done as follows:

  • Self-handicap: to cover yourself in advance by coming up with apologies for failure

  • Solve the problem, self-improvement

  • Apologize; blame someone or something else for failure

  • Self-efficacy; try to take control of the problem yourself

  • Control and life goals; you focus on intrinsic goals, because these provide greater well-being

Chapter 5 Observing groups

  1. Answers

    1. right

    2. right

    3. right

    4. right

    5. incorrect

  1. d. (1) correct, (1) correct

  1. Three factors that can lead to more stereotyping:

  • More capacity: all effects that reduce the cognitive capacity of people increase the effects of stereotypes on judgments. Examples of this are, for example, time pressure and too complex information.

  • More power: this leads to stereotyping because many stereotypes are supported by the social position of the powerful persons and because powerful people in general have less need for the accurate observation of other people.

  • More emotion: because strong emotions interrupt attention and impede accurate processing, emotion leads to more stereotyping.

  1. Three factors that prevent the formation of stereotypes:

  • Suppression: the countering of stereotyped thoughts can be brought about by oppression. Suppressed thoughts are unfortunately not always possible and can cause a rebound.

  • Activating contrast-type information: as soon as the opposite of the stereotypical thoughts is put in a row, this can cause the stereotypes to disappear.

  • Correcting: once stereotypes are recognized, and effort is made to correct them, they can disappear. The disadvantage is that time and mental means costs are not always possible. As soon as an excessively positive opinion of stereotyped groups is made (overcorrection), this can also help prevent stereotyped thoughts.

  1. d. 1) incorrect, (2) correct

  1. Answers

    1. right

    2. right

    3. unclear

    4. right

    5. right

Chapter 6 Social identity

  1. Bask in reflected glory, also abbreviated as BIRG, is a way to increase self-esteem by identifying with successful group members.

  1. d. (1) incorrect, (2) correct

  1. The outgroup homogeneity effect refers to the effect in which people tend to see people from the outgroup as the same.

  1. The cross-race identification bias occurs when people have more difficulty recognizing and remembering emotions and faces of people of a different race than with people of their own race. This is especially true in eyewitnesses in court.

  1. Three explanations for the effect:

  • There is little familiarity with the out-group and therefore it seems as if the in-group is more diverse.

  • Little (individual) interaction takes place between the different groups.

  • One is inclined to look out for group characteristics in out-group members, while in-group members focus much more on personal characteristics. This also links back to the first point, in which the out-group is seen as less diverse than the in-group.

  1. Four factors that can explain ethnic conflicts:

  • Negative stereotyping

  • Collisions in the past

  • Unfamiliarity with each other and the fear that goes with it.

  • The distribution of resources that is necessary but not smooth

  1. The social identity theory states that one is focused on positive self-esteem and this gets out of group memberships.

  1. Answers

    1. incorrect

    2. right

    3. right

    4. right

    5. right

Chapter 7 Attitudes and their change

  1. Forming attitudes happened for two reasons:

  • They are useful for controlling and understanding the environment. Organizing experiences happens through the object appraisal / knowledge function. The utilitarian / instrumental function ensures that we maximize our rewards and thereby achieve our important goals.

  • They are useful in expressing themselves and others and ensuring the establishment of connectedness.

  1. c. (1) correct, (2) correct

  1. The formation of attitudes happens through the following principles:

  • Accessibility; information that is very accessible / ready for the greater influence of information that is less accessible.

  • Consistency; new attitudes are adapted in old attitudes.

  • Negative information stands out; negative information is more noticeable and is remembered more than positive information.

  1. d. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

  1. The expertise heuristics indicates that people are inclined to believe people who are entitled as able to believe faster than people who are not. Research also shows that people who quickly proclaim a message have a greater degree of credibility.

  1. The length-of-the-message heuristics means that long messages are generally considered more than true.

  1. The four different steps of systematic processing are:

  • Attention must be paid to the message.

  • The message must be so simple that it is understood and correctly communicated to the recipient.

  • The response to the information by means of elaboration (can contain both positive and negative reactions to the message).

  • The acceptance of the message.

  1. b. (1) motivation, (2) capacity

  1. d. Intellect

  1. Answers

    1. right

    2. incorrect

    3. right

    4. right

    5. incorrect

Chapter 8 Behavior and attitudes

  1. Self-perception theory is a theory in which actions are able to influence attitudes because people derive their attitudes from their own behaviors. In this way, a distinction is made between the causes and consequences of their behavior and their attitudes.

  1. The foot in the door technique is a technique where the goal is to get someone's permission, but first ask a small question, which is followed by a greater demand or favor. It turns out that people accept the larger request more quickly because they agreed to a small request and therefore have the idea that they can no longer return.

  1. Four steps in the realization of dissonance and change in attitudes:

  • The action must be seen as inconsistent. Dissonance is most often caused when the behavior is inconsistent with self-images of man.

  • The person must take personal responsibility for the behavior. Dissonance does not come about if one attributes behavior to external factors.

  • The person must experience unpleasant physiological feelings.

  • These feelings must be attributed to the inconsistency between attitude and behavior.


  1. There are five basic principles of justification for behaviors that are in conflict with the attitudes:

  • The justification of attitude discrepant behavior

  • The justification of trouble

  • The justification of decisions

  • The justification of attitude consistent behavior

  • The justification of inconsistent actions

  1. d. (1) correct, (2) correct

  1. The four steps:

  • Form the intentions. Intentions are the most important predictor of ultimate behavior. The 'theory of reasoned action' says that attitudes and social norms are important sources for intentions, which in turn lead to behavior.

  • Activate behavioral information. The information that is activated is determined by someone's thinking level.

  • The planning: in this step, the intended behavior is put in a certain export plan.

  • The intended behavior is carried out. This only happens if the opportunity arises.


  1. a. Semi automatic

  1. c. (1) correct, (2) incorrect

Chapter 9 Standards and groups

  1. A social group is a group of people who share characteristics or traits. Examples include interests, age and sex. A face to face group consists of two or more people who interact with each other and who influence each other.

  1. Social norms are the generally accepted ways of thinking, feeling or behavior of a particular group. These thoughts, feelings and behaviors are, according to the members of the group, the correct ones and thus actually represent the group evaluation of the correct and incorrect behavior of a particular group.

  1. Informational and normative influence.

  1. Informational influence ensures that members of a group comply with the norms because they believe that the norms of the group represent the work equality. In this case you could say that one agrees because one does not know better (one does not know, or can not see / hear well and for that reason goes with other people's convictions). This form of influence has to do with the assurance of control. Normative influence means that members of a group agree with each other to obtain a positive social identity. In this case you could say that one takes over the opinion of others so that he or she is put in a good light. This form of influence relates to (social) solidarity.

  1. a. (1) correct, (2) correct

  1. In polarization, the final opinion of a group becomes more extreme than the individual opinions at the start of the discussion. This happens especially when the majority of the group members at the beginning already have a preference for a certain side of the discussion. Polarization takes place regardless of the discussion or the way of processing (superficially or systematically).

  1. ' Risky shift' is the effect of making riskier decisions in a group than when he or she would do it on his own.

  1. Three reasons:

  • Public conformity

  • If you come to a consensus without thinking about the relevant information yourself.

  • If there is a common bias

  1. a. Pluralistic ignorance

  1. b. (1) correct, (2) correct

Chapter 10 Behavior and social norms

  1. There are a number of reasons why people behave according to social norms:

  • Repeated activation: if a standard is activated frequently, this triggers an endorsement. The behavior becomes more likely as soon as strong associations between situations and behavior are formed.

  • Internationalization is the follow-up of social norms because it is assumed that these are correct and decent standards

  • Duress; it sometimes happens that people obey social norms because there are rewards and punishments. This is an ineffective way to allow normative behavior to occur, this is because there is no question of personal acceptance.

  • Consensus: normative behavior is supported by other people in the group showing the behavior. They activate and reinforce social norms in this way.

  1. The individualization points to the psychological state in which one loses oneself in the masses. The group / social identity dominates the personal identity. In this way, group standards are the only ones that are accessible. Consequences of this vary depending on the activated norm, between social and antisocial behavior.

  1. d. The low-ball technique

  1. Milgram's experiment: In this experiment, participants had to give electric shocks to a played participant who audibly suffered from the severe shocks it received. However, there were no people who got shocks; a band using screams was used. The subjects who had to share the shocks were not forced to do so, but most of them continued to administer the shocks. This showed that obedience was not due to personal shortcomings, indifference to the victims or suspicion about the experiment and that this effect could not be explained away about time, place or people who participated in it. A possible explanation for these events can be found in the angle of obedience to the authority. 'Organizational obedience is the submissiveness that occurs in hierarchical bureaucratic organizations and takes place on a large scale. The norm of obedience to authority prescribes that one must obey the orders of persons with authority. There are four conditions here before this standard occurs. The standard of obedience must be accessible and the other standards less accessible, the authority must be just and the authority must accept responsibility.The standard of obedience must be accessible and the other standards less accessible, the authority must be just and the authority must accept responsibility.The standard of obedience must be accessible and the other standards less accessible, the authority must be just and the authority must accept responsibility.

  1. Reactance is a motive to protect or restore a sense of freedom, for example if private standards are not accepted. A reason for reactance is, for example, when normative pressure (see previous chapter) is received and labeled as indecent.

  1. b. Theory of planned behavior

  1. Low self-monitors find physical attraction less important than high self-monitors because high self-monitors are more sensitive to the environment.

Chapter 11 Friendships and (love) relationships

  1. For example, men find attractiveness of the partner in long relationships more important than that women find this. There is an evolutionary explanation for this. The parental investment is smaller for men, so that they can fully concentrate on reproduction. The degree of attractiveness is an indication of fertility, youthfulness and health, which makes men look for attractiveness more quickly. Women often have larger parental investments and therefore look for a partner who can provide support. That is why she often searches for a dominant, strong or status-oriented man.

  1. Answers:

    1. right

    2. incorrect

    3. right

    4. right

    5. incorrect

  1. Three differences factors:

  • Satisfaction with the relationship

  • Psychological obstacles

  • See the rewards of the relationships as unique

  1. The four different attachment styles:

  • Anxiously attached people are negative towards themselves and others. They give and seek little support in relationships.

  • Preoccupied, attached people think negatively about themselves but positive about others. In general, these people are expressive in emotions and have a lot of confidence in other people.

  • People who avoid being afflicted have a positive view of themselves but a negative view of others. They are not very expressive and show little intimacy in relationships. They also seek and give little support.

  • Safely attached people have a positive image about themselves and about others. They experience trust and happiness in close relationships and are more likely to seek and give support.

  1. a. (1) correct, (2) correct

  1. People who are safely attached exhibit constructive behavior and see their partner and relationship in a more positive light after the discussion of a problem. People who are avoiding attachment, and then this applies especially to men, are less helpful and distant in discussion. When people have a preoccupied or anxious attachment style, they are not very constructive behavior and often have outbursts of negative emotions. Anxious people show a lot of anxiety and stress during a discussion. They also feel angry and find that there is less commitment, love and passion in the relationship.

  1. Destructive responses are things like shouting and ignoring the other and endangering the relationship.

  1. Answers:

    1. incorrect

    2. right

    3. incorrect

    4. right

    5. right

Chapter 12 Group interaction

  1. Social facilitation is the phenomenon in which accessible reactions become more likely due to the presence of other people, while less accessible reactions become less likely. The presence of others in this way ensures that easily learned tasks are better (this is called your dominant response), but that complicated tasks are less easy (the so-called non-dominant response).

  1. d. (1) correct, (2) correct

  1. The exploration phase

  1.                  Different phases:

  1. The formation of the group

  2. The storming

  3. Standardizing

  4. The output

  5. The end of the group

  1.                  Three types of interdependence:

  • Conjuctive (merging) tasks: here the performance of the group is very important and failure of the cooperation can ensure that things do not come off.

  • Additive (additional) tasks: here it is important that everyone works individually well. Good cooperation is also very important.

  • Disjunctive (conflicting) tasks: good cooperation and good training and selection of members are of great importance. The performance of the group is as good as the best performance of one member.

  • Complex tasks: are tasks in which various subtasks can have any of the above forms of mutual indepen- dence.

  1.                  Two causes:

  • Reduced motivation can lead to less effort in groups than he or she would do alone. This happens especially when the efforts of a member can not be distinguished from those of the total group. This is also called social loafing and is generally less common with interesting tasks. It is more common if one has the idea that the group as a whole delivers better work than he or she could.

  • Bad coordination can also lead to a reduction in performance. If you do not know exactly who has to do something and when something has to happen, people will get confused and distract each other faster, reducing the overall performance.

  1.                  d. An improved performance

  1.                  Answers:

    1. right

    2. right

    3. right

    4. incorrect

    5. right

  1.                  The contingency theories of leadership assume that the style of a leader must fit with the type of leadership that the situation requires. In this way, leadership is the most effective.

Chapter 13 Conflict situations

  1.                  Instrumental aggression is aggression arising from the need for the pursuit of a particular goal. Emotional aggression aims at aggression itself and is often provoked by a threat to self-confidence.

  1.                  c. (1) correct, (2) correct

  1.                  The realistic conflict theory assumes that conflicts and aggression between groups arise through competition about managing scarce and valued material objects.

  1.                  a. (1) correct, (2) correct

  1.                  There are different types of solutions:

  • Declared solution

  • Integrating solution

  • Distributive solution

  1.                  Reactive devaluation is the process in which one party proposes something, to which the opposing party immediately disagrees because one has the idea that it can not be good for both parties.

  1.                  There are a number of conditions under which collaboration makes sense:

  • The cooperation must be between equals.

  • The cooperation must ensure that stereotypes are possibly invalidated.

  • The cooperation must be for a common goal that is not aimed at social or material sources.

  • The collaboration must lead to successful results.

  • Cooperation must be strengthened and promoted by social standards.

Chapter 14 Help behavior and cooperation

  1.                  Altruism is the behavior that is purely and solely aimed at helping the other person. There is no prospect of a reward for the helper here. Selfishness, however, is the behavior that is driven by the prospect of a reward for the helper.

  1.                  Many people wonder whether help behavior is not simply generated by selfishness. For example, the 'negative-state relief model of helping' states that support behavior comes from egoistic motives. For example, we would help people who are less fortunate because we then lose the miserable feeling about that.

  1.                  In the empathy altruism model it was stated that people can have two different emotions when they see someone suffering. First of all, they can experience personal misery, such as fear and panic, that ensure that egoistic help behavior comes about. In addition, they can also receive empathetic concerns, which are feelings of pity and sympathy, which ensure that altruistic help behavior will be shown.

  1.                  There are two main types of social dilemmas:

  • Dilemmas about resource exhaustion

  • Public goods dilemmas

  1.                  Priming is a way in which certain constructs become more accessible and thus influence behavior.

  1.                  Different motives:

  • Career prospects

  • Solving personal problems

  • Increasing personal development and self-esteem

  • Express personal values

  • Cultivate understanding

  • Getting a rating from others

  • Gain new knowledge and skills

  1.                  d. (1) incorrect, (2) correct

  1.                  A number of ways to promote prosocial behavior and support behavior:

  • Increasing the connection

  • Clarify the need for help

  • The learning of prosocial behavior

  • Administering behavior internally increases the likelihood of repetition of support behavior

  • Reducing responsibility

121. Cognitive dissonance is the unpleasant feeling that an individual experiences when he or she learns that an event is in conflict with one's own views, values ​​or norms. It is a difference in cognitions, with cognition being meant behavior, knowledge, opinions, etc. People usually try to solve cognitive dissonance by adjusting or rationalizing behavior. The opposite is cognitive consonance.

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