# Recognizing commonly used statistical symbols

# Recognizing commonly used statistical symbols

In statistics, you will come across many symbols. On this page you will find the most commonly used statistical symbols in alphabetical order with their name and meaning for a quick reference.

### Commonly used statistical symbols

## Commonly used greek symbols

Sign | Description | Meaning in statistics |
---|---|---|

\[\huge{\alpha}\] | Alpha | Chance of type I error |

\[\huge\beta\] | Beta | Chance of type II error |

\[\huge\beta_i\] | Beta of i | Standardised regression coëfficiënt |

\[\huge\epsilon\] | Epsilon | Error |

\[\huge\eta^2\] | Eta squared | Measurement of effect size |

\[\huge\mu\] | Mu | Mean of scores of population |

\[\huge\rho\] | Rho | Correlation in population |

\[\huge\sigma\] | Sigma | Standard deviation |

\[\huge\sigma^2\] | Sigma squared | Variance of population |

\[\huge\sigma_x\] | Standard error | |

\[\huge\tau\] | Kendall’s Tau | A non-parametric correlation coefficient |

\[\huge\varphi\] | Phi | Association between two categorical variables |

\[\huge \chi^2\] | Chi-square | Association between two categorical variables |

\[\huge\omega^2\] | Omega squared | Measurement of effect size |

## Commonly used latin symbols

Sign | Meaning in statistics |
---|---|

\[\huge b_i\] | Regression coefficient |

\[\huge df\] | Degrees of freedom |

\[\huge e_i\] | Error associated with variable i |

\[\huge F\] | F-statistic |

\[\huge H\] | Kruskall-Wallis test statistic |

\[\huge k\] | Number of levels of variables |

\[\huge ln\] | Natural logarithm |

\[\huge MS\] | Mean squared error |

\[\huge N, n, n_1\] | Size of sample of population |

\[\huge P\] | Probablity |

\[\huge r\] | Pearson’s correlationcoefficient |

\[\huge r_s\] | Spearman’s rank correlationcoefficient |

\[\huge r_b\] | Biserial correlationcoefficient |

\[\huge r\] | Multiple correlationcoefficient |

\[\huge R^2\] | Determination coefficient |

\[\huge s\] | Standard deviation of sample of population |

\[\huge s^2\] | Variance of sample of population |

\[\huge SS\] | Sum of squares |

\[\huge SSA\] | Sum of squares of variable A |

\[\huge SS_M\] | Model of sum of squares |

\[\huge SS_R\] | Rest sum of squares |

\[\huge SST\] | Total sum of squares |

\[\huge t\] | Test statistic for t-test |

\[\huge t\] | Test statistic for Wilcoxon’s matched-pairs signed-rank test |

\[\huge U\] | Test statistic for Mann-Whitney test |

\[\huge W_s\] | Test statistic for Wilcoxon’s rank-sum test |

\[\huge\bar{x}\] | Mean of sample scores |

\[\huge z\] | Point of data expressed in units of standard deviation |

## Commonly used mathematical symbols

Sign | Description | Meaning in statistics |
---|---|---|

\[\huge\bar{\small[value]}\] | Bar notation | Mean of: [value], or everything directly below the bar sign |

\[\huge\hat{\small[value]}\] | Hat operator notation | Estimator (or predicted value of a sample) of: [value], or everything directly below the hat operator sign |

\[\LARGE\prod \small[value]\] | Product notation | Multiplying of: [value], or everything directly after the product sign |

\[\LARGE\sum \small[value]\] | Sigma notation | Summification of: [value], or everything directly after the sigma sign |

\[\huge\sqrt{\small[value]}\] | Square root notation | Square root of: [value], or everything directly after the square root sign |

Statistics Startup pages: summaries and study notes

# Statistics Startup pages: summaries and study notes

## Startpages for studying statistics

Video for basic statistical symbols

## Video for basic statistical symbols

An introduction of basic symbols of statistics

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