# Recognizing commonly used statistical symbols

In statistics, you will come across many symbols. On this page you will find the most commonly used statistical symbols in alphabetical order with their name and meaning for a quick reference.

## Commonly used greek symbols

SignDescriptionMeaning in statistics
$\huge{\alpha}$Alpha

Chance of type I error

$\huge\beta$Beta

Chance of type II error

$\huge\beta_i$Beta of i

Standardised regression coëfficiënt

$\huge\epsilon$Epsilon

Error

$\huge\eta^2$Eta squared

Measurement of effect size

$\huge\mu$Mu

Mean of scores of population

$\huge\rho$Rho

Correlation in population

$\huge\sigma$Sigma

Standard deviation

$\huge\sigma^2$Sigma squared

Variance of population

$\huge\sigma_x$

Standard error

$\huge\tau$Kendall’s Tau

A non-parametric correlation coefficient

$\huge\varphi$Phi

Association between two categorical variables

$\huge \chi^2$Chi-square

Association between two categorical variables

$\huge\omega^2$Omega squared

Measurement of effect size

## Commonly used latin symbols

SignMeaning in statistics
$\huge b_i$Regression coefficient
$\huge df$Degrees of freedom
$\huge e_i$Error associated with variable i
$\huge F$F-statistic
$\huge H$Kruskall-Wallis test statistic
$\huge k$Number of levels of variables
$\huge ln$Natural logarithm
$\huge MS$Mean squared error
$\huge N, n, n_1$Size of sample of population
$\huge P$Probablity
$\huge r$Pearson’s correlationcoefficient
$\huge r_s$Spearman’s rank correlationcoefficient
$\huge r_b$Biserial correlationcoefficient
$\huge r$Multiple correlationcoefficient
$\huge R^2$Determination coefficient
$\huge s$Standard deviation of sample of population
$\huge s^2$Variance of sample of population
$\huge SS$Sum of squares
$\huge SSA$Sum of squares of variable A
$\huge SS_M$Model of sum of squares
$\huge SS_R$Rest sum of squares
$\huge SST$Total sum of squares
$\huge t$Test statistic for t-test
$\huge t$Test statistic for Wilcoxon’s matched-pairs signed-rank test
$\huge U$Test statistic for Mann-Whitney test
$\huge W_s$Test statistic for Wilcoxon’s rank-sum test
$\huge\bar{x}$Mean of sample scores
$\huge z$Point of data expressed in units of standard deviation

## Commonly used mathematical symbols

SignDescriptionMeaning in statistics
$\huge\bar{\small[value]}$Bar notationMean of: [value], or everything directly below the bar sign
$\huge\hat{\small[value]}$Hat operator notationEstimator (or predicted value of a sample) of: [value], or everything directly below the hat operator sign
$\LARGE\prod \small[value]$Product notationMultiplying of: [value], or everything directly after the product sign
$\LARGE\sum \small[value]$Sigma notationSummification of: [value], or everything directly after the sigma sign
$\huge\sqrt{\small[value]}$Square root notationSquare root of: [value], or everything directly after the square root sign

Last updated
05-01-2022

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