Non-parametric tests can be used when the assumptions of the regular statistical tests have been violated. Non-parametric tests use fewer assumptions and are robust. A non-parametric test has less power than parametric tests if the sampling distribution is normally distributed.Ranking the data refers to giving the lowest score the rank of 1, the next highest score a rank of 2 and so on. This eliminates the effect of outliers. It does neglect the difference in magnitude between the scores. If there are two scores that are the same, there are tied ranks. These scores are ranked by the value of the average potential rank for those scores (e.g. rank 3 and 4 will become rank 3.5). There are several alternatives to the four most used non-parametric tests:Kolmogorov-Smirnov ZIt tests whether two groups have been drawn from the same population. It has more power than the Mann-Whitney test when the sample sizes are less than 25 per group.Moses Extreme ReactionIt tests the variability of scores across the two groups and is a non-parametric form of the Levene’s test.Wald-Wolfowitz runsIt looks at clusters of scores in order to determine whether the groups differ. If there is no difference, the ranks should be randomly interspersed.Sign testIt does the same as the Wilcoxon-signed rank test but it is only based on the direction of the difference. The magnitude of change is neglected. It lacks power unless the sample size is really small.McNemar’s testIt uses nominal, rather than ordinal data. It is useful when looking for changes in people’s scores. It compares the number of people who changed their response in one direction to those who changed in the opposite direction. Marginal homogeneityIt is an extension of McNemar’s test and is similar to the Wilcoxon test.Friedman’s 2-way ANOVA by ranks (k samples)It is a non-parametric ANOVA to compare two groups but has low power compared to the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.Median testIt assesses...

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