## Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics by Andy Field, fifth edition – Summary chapter 6

Bias can be detrimental for the parameter estimates (**1**), standard errors and confidence intervals (**2**) and the test statistics and p-values (**3**). Outliers and violations of assumptions are forms of bias.

An **outlier **is a score very different from the rest of the data. They bias parameter estimates and have an impact on the error associated

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