## What is statistics?

Statistics comprises the arithmetic procedures to organize, sum up and interpret information.

Glossary for Introduction to Statistics

Definitions and explanations of the most important terms generally associated with Introduction to Statistics

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What is statistics?

Statistics comprises the arithmetic procedures to organize, sum up and interpret information.

Date:

19-01-2019

What is a variable?

A *variable* is a characteristic or condition that is changeable, or has different values for different individuals, for example age.

Date:

19-01-2019

What is the difference between the dependent and independent variables?

An *independent variable* is a variable that is being manipulated by the researcher. It often comprises two or more conditions, to which participants are being exposed. The *dependent variable* is the variable that is being observed after manipulating the

Date:

19-01-2019

What is the difference between discrete and continuous variables?

A discrete variable comprises different categories. For example, a class can consist of 18 or 19 children, but can not consist of 18.5 children. For a continuous variable, there are infinite numbers or values possible between two observed values. Think for example of length

...Date:

19-01-2019

What is a desciptive research design?

With descriptive research, the behavior, thoughts and feelings of a group of individuals are described.

Date:

19-01-2019

What is a correlational research design?

With correlational research, the association between variables is studied. With correlational studies, no statements can be made about cause-and-effect relationships.

Date:

19-01-2019

What is an experimental research design?

In experimental studies, a variable (the independent variable) is manipulated to examine its possible effects on behavior (the dependent variable). If this is true (and all other assumptions are met), we can conclude that the independent variable causes these changes. The

...Date:

19-01-2019

What is a quasi-experimental research design?

This type of design is used when researchers are, for whatever reason, not able to manipulate the variable. Think for example of gender and age. The researcher studies the effects of a variable of an event that happens naturally and can not be manipulated. Quasi-experiments

...Date:

19-01-2019

What are the seven steps of the research process?

The research process comprises seven steps:

Select a topic.

Demarcate and specify the topic. Study prior research with regard to your topic and specify the research question(s).

Set up a plan to answer the research

Date:

19-01-2019

What is the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics?

*Descriptive statistics* is used to describe the data. We can calculate the mean, display the data in a graph or look for extreme scores. *Inferential statistics* refers to making inferences about the population, based on a certain

Date:

19-01-2019

What is the difference between a parameter and a statistic?

When a measurement refers to the whole population, it is called a *parameter*. When a measure refers to the sample, it is called a *statistic*. Statistics are thus estimates of the parameter.

Date:

19-01-2019

What is the nominal measurement level?

The simplest (lowest) measurement level is the nominal scale. For nominal variables, numbers only refer to categories. Measurement on the nominal scale categorize and label observations. The number 1 for example can be used for ‘men’ and the number 2 can be used for ‘women

...Date:

19-01-2019

What is the ordinal measurement level?

An ordinal variable comprises a set of categories with an ordering. For example, you can order the participants of a singing competition of worst to best on the basis of the applause they received. However, we can not determine perfectly how much more applause one or the

...Date:

19-01-2019

What is the interval measurement level?

An interval variable is a variable with a real number. Equal differences between number on this scale reflect equal differences in strength. However, with interval variables, there is no defined zero point. For example, you can not say a person has zero height. Because there

...Date:

19-01-2019

What is the ratio measurement level?

A ratio variable is a variable with a real number. Equal differences between number on this scale reflect equal differences in strength. Here, we do speak of a zero-level. Because of this, we are able to add, subtract, multiply and divide observations. Examples of ratio

...Date:

19-01-2019

Introduction to Statistics

Explanations, glossary and practice questions with fundamental concepts and tips, explanations and examples per topic when encountering, understanding and applying statistics

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