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International Relations: summaries of legendary standard works, literature and manuals

International Relations: summaries of legendary standard works, literature and manuals

Summary with International Economics and Business. Nations and Firms in the Global Economy by Beugelsdijk

Summary with International Economics and Business. Nations and Firms in the Global Economy by Beugelsdijk


CHAPTER A: ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION- WHAT, HOW AND WHEN?

§A.1 ‘The global economy- Some general information’

There is no one standard answer to the question: “What is globalization?”. Globalization means different things to different people. Take farm leaders, trade unionists and human rights activists as an example ; they all see different pros and cons for globalization.

Based on this argumentation, there are five key issues to be considered:

  • Cultural globalization > Which is about the debate whether there is one big global culture or a set of universal cultural variables, and the degree  to which these universal cultural variables displace embedded national cultures and traditions.

An example that illustrates this debate: there are people afraid of ‘McDonaldization’ (hige multinationals are the carriers of culture globalization) and there are people seeing enough room for local traditions.

  • Economic globalization > Which is about the decline of national markets and the rise of global markets. Drivers for economic globalization are fundamental changes in technology which permit more efficient ways of internationally organizing production processes.
  • Geographical globalization > Which is about the result of ‘joint time and space’ due to reduced travel times and the rapid (electronic) exchange of information. Some neo-liberals named this development the ‘end of geography’ in which location no longer matters.
  • Institutional globalization > Which is about the spread of universal institutional regulations across the world, triggered by US President Reagan’s and UK Prime Minister Thatcher’s ‘revolution’ of neo-liberalism. These neo-liberal policies are represented by institutions such as the IMF (International Monetary Fund), the WB (World Bank) and the WTO (World Trade Organization). These universal institutional regulations are not only on macro-economic level, but also on the micro-economic level: multinationals adopt similar policies under the pressure of competition and regulation.
  • Political globalization > Which is about the relationship between the power of the market (multinational corporations) versus the nation-state, which continuously has to make changes and updates in reaction to economic and political forces. Popular anti-globalists stress that large multinationals become more and more powerful, out-powering the majority of nation-states. In contradiction, others point out that real evidence for these fears is lacking, as the state has to provide security, a legal system, education and infrastructure, which are all of vital importance for economic activity and growth.

Keynes once said that the master economist should “examine the present in light of the past, for the purpose of the future”, by which the common opinion.....read more

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International business and strategy: the best textbooks summarized

International business and strategy: the best textbooks summarized

International Business and Strategy: the best textbooks summarized

Summaries and study assistance with International Business and Strategy

  • For 5+ booksummaries for International Business and Strategy, see the supporting content of this study guide

Table of Content

  • Business Ethics: Managing corporate citizenship and sustainability in the age of globalization by Crane and Matten
  • Business History: complexities and comparisons van Amatori en Colli
  • Cross-Cultural Management by Thomas and Peterson
  • Global Business by Peng
  • Global Political Economy by O'Brien and Williams
  • International Business Strategy by Verbeke
  • International Economics van Marrewijk
  • International Economics by Pugel
  • International Economics and Business: Nations and Firms in the Global Economy by Beugelsdijk
  • Operations and Supply Chain Management, The Core van Jacobs en Chase

For available summaries, bulletpoints, practice exams and glossaries with International Business and Strategy, see the supporting content of this study guide

About International Business and Strategy

  • International Business involves commercial transactions that occur between countries, including trade, investment, and management of global operations. Strategy refers to the comprehensive plan devised by an organization to achieve long-term goals and maintain competitive advantage, encompassing decisions about resource allocation, market positioning, and business operations.

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Internationale communicatie en interculturele communicatie: De beste studieboeken samengevat

Internationale communicatie en interculturele communicatie: De beste studieboeken samengevat

Samenvattingen en studiehulp bij Internationale communicatie en interculturele communicatie

Inhoudsopgave

Nederlands:

  • Samenvatting bij het boek: Interculturele Communicatie van Nunez en Popma - 3e druk
  • Samenvatting bij het boek: McQuails Mass Communication theory van McQuail

Engels:

  • Summary with the book: Cross-Cultural Management by Thomas and Peterson - 4th edition
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International Human Resource Management

International Human Resource Management

Summary of: Ewards, T. & Kuruvilla, S. (2005). International HRM: National Business Systems, Organizational Politics, and the International Division of Labour in MNCs. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 16(1)

INTERNATIONAL HRM

Strategic human resource management: The RBV suggests that the firm’s human resources can be used to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. But failures by the HRM policy can turn human resources into a major source of disadvantage. Considering transaction cost economics, the decision to add one or more factory workers on the assembly line might be made using the logic of transaction cost analysis. But maybe not when we talk about skilled workers and probably even less again when we’re talking about workers core to our firm.

 

Human resource management (HRM) is a field of theory and practice that deals with decisions related to policies and practices, that together help to shape the relationship between the firm and its employees. It is suggested that:

  • Human capital can be a source of competitive advantage; and

  • HR practices have the most direct influence on the human capital of an organization.

 

Most conceptual models provide grounds for expecting MNCs to adopt a global element to the way they manage their international workforces to reap the benefits from coordination and integration; consistency and contribution; and learning lessons across operation (transferring knowledge). Another pressure for global HR policies is the country of origin effect (i.e. export the home country style). In contrast, there are also a variety of grounds expecting MNCs to adopt a local element in their HR policies. Decentralization is pressed for by differing national cultures (i.e. multi-culturalism) and national-level regulations and institutions.
 

A variety of authors argue for a middle way, a combination of the global and local pressures. Yet, the tension between integration (consistency of HR practices in the MNC) and differentiation (local adaptation) is determined by a list of endogenous and exogenous factors, so many in fact that the models are difficult to operationalize.
 

There are three significant weaknesses and problems to the existing literature:

1. Inadequate conceptualization of national influences
The weak explanatory power of the precise origins and nature of both global and local effects. Importantly, where there is an attempt to analyze a national system it is often couched in terms of culture.

This can take two forms:

  1. Either culture is used in a loose way to capture all aspects of national differences

  2. Use is made of a particular typology of culture, such as Hofstede’s.

Apart from the utility for HR policy, perhaps the major problem with these cultural approaches is that they explain relatively little.

An alternative approach is to focus on the key institutions within a nation. Focus on a national business system, which is a set of interlocking structures and institutions in different spheres of economic and social life that combine to create a nationally distinct pattern

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Summary: Law of Public International Organizations

Summary: Law of Public International Organizations


Chapter 1: Introduction

The activities of international organizations are subject to law, and give rise to law. Each and every international organization has a set of rules relating to its own functioning. As international organizations do not exist in a vacuum, their activities are also bound to exercise some influence on other legal systems, and absorb the influence of such systems. While it is possible that international organizations are influenced by, and exert influence on, the law of individual nation-states, the more direct and influential links usually exist within the body of rules known as international law.

Critical legal theory

The law of international organizations is still somewhat immature. On numerous points the law lacks certainty. In particular, international legal doctrine has a hard time coming to terms with the relationship between an international organization and the very states which are its members. On the one hand, the law is supposed to respect the interests of individual states. Yet at the same time, the law must also take the interests of the international community into account. Following the critical legal tradition, international law is bound to swerve back and forth between these two poles of sovereignty and community. It is this tension which makes international legal rules often ultimately uncertain. This tension also reflects in the law of international organizations, for example regarding the so-called principle of attribution of powers. Strict adherents to the notion of state sovereignty will not easily admit the existence of implied powers; yet for the protection of community interests, an implied power may well be deemed desirable.

The main benefit of critical legal theory is its capacity to make visible the inherent tensions and contradictions which help shape the law. In this way it can provide great services in understanding international institutional law.

Defining international organizations

What exactly is an international organization? While it is structurally impossible to define in a comprehensive manner, something which is a social creation (social constructs, created by people in order to help them achieve some purpose) to begin with, it is common in the literature to delimit international organizations in at least some ways. One delimitation often made depends on the body of law governing the activities of the organization. If those activities are governed by international law, we speak of an international organization, or at least of an intergovernmental organization. If those activities are governed by.....read more

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Summary: Financial Accounting: An International Introduction

Summary: Financial Accounting: An International Introduction

This summary was written in the year 2013-2014.


1. Introduction to Financial Accounting

Definitions

Accounting has evolved over the years based on a response to different perceived needs in that field. In different countries and in different environments accounting has developed in different ways. Because of this there is not one single definition for the word accounting. Generally speaking, accounting exists to provide service for different types of people dealing with business entities, such as managers, investors, lenders, employees, suppliers, customers, governments, and the public.

There are key words for accounting which are:

  • Process
  • Information
  • Economic nature
  • Enable decision making

Managerial accounting (internal)

Managerial accounting targets at management within organizations, therefore no commercially confidential information needs to be kept secret. No external checking is needed for the reporting. Compared with financial reporting, it is more detailed, more frequent, and involving forecasting all the important figures for next year. It is concerned with the provision of information intended to be useful to management within the business

Financial accounting (external)

Accounting for users outside of the business itself (examples are listed in the definition, excluding managers). According to IASB, financial reporting is largely designed to provide investors with useful information, concentrating on immediate past. External checking is needed.

Users of financial statements:

  • Investors
  • Employees
  • Suppliers
  • Governments
  • Public
  • Customers
  • Other lenders

Auditing

A control mechanism made to provide both external and independent checks on the published financial statements and reports of organizations.

  • Finance: looks at the optimal means of raising money
  • Financial management: the optimal means of spending it
  • Financial accounting: reporting on the results of having used it

Bookkeeping

Records data and keeping records of money and financially related movements. It is financial and management accounting that takes the raw data, chooses and presents it as appropriate. Therefore, financial accounting acts as the communicating process to those outside the enterprise.

Regulation

Market forces, the 'state' and accountancy profession together determine accounting regulation. The accounting profession is organized in associations. The European Union requires two types of organization: qualifying bodies (exams & technical rules) and regulatory bodies which are under government control. The coordinating organization for the accountancy profession around the world is IFAC (International Federation of Accountants). The purpose of IFAC is “to develop and enhance a coordinated worldwide accountancy profession with harmonized standards”. IASB (International Accounting Standards Board).....read more

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International Law: summaries of legendary standard works, literature and manuals

International Law: summaries of legendary standard works, literature and manuals

Summary: Law of Public International Organizations

Summary: Law of Public International Organizations


Chapter 1: Introduction

The activities of international organizations are subject to law, and give rise to law. Each and every international organization has a set of rules relating to its own functioning. As international organizations do not exist in a vacuum, their activities are also bound to exercise some influence on other legal systems, and absorb the influence of such systems. While it is possible that international organizations are influenced by, and exert influence on, the law of individual nation-states, the more direct and influential links usually exist within the body of rules known as international law.

Critical legal theory

The law of international organizations is still somewhat immature. On numerous points the law lacks certainty. In particular, international legal doctrine has a hard time coming to terms with the relationship between an international organization and the very states which are its members. On the one hand, the law is supposed to respect the interests of individual states. Yet at the same time, the law must also take the interests of the international community into account. Following the critical legal tradition, international law is bound to swerve back and forth between these two poles of sovereignty and community. It is this tension which makes international legal rules often ultimately uncertain. This tension also reflects in the law of international organizations, for example regarding the so-called principle of attribution of powers. Strict adherents to the notion of state sovereignty will not easily admit the existence of implied powers; yet for the protection of community interests, an implied power may well be deemed desirable.

The main benefit of critical legal theory is its capacity to make visible the inherent tensions and contradictions which help shape the law. In this way it can provide great services in understanding international institutional law.

Defining international organizations

What exactly is an international organization? While it is structurally impossible to define in a comprehensive manner, something which is a social creation (social constructs, created by people in order to help them achieve some purpose) to begin with, it is common in the literature to delimit international organizations in at least some ways. One delimitation often made depends on the body of law governing the activities of the organization. If those activities are governed by international law, we speak of an international organization, or at least of an intergovernmental organization. If those activities are governed by.....read more

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Summary of International Law by Shaw: 7th edition

Summary of International Law by Shaw: 7th edition


Chapter A The nature and development of international law

The principal actors in international law are nation-states, not individual citizens like in domestic or municipal law. International law is divided into conflict of law, private international law and public international law. The latter is usually termed ‘international law’. Public international law covers relations between states in all their forms, and regulates the operations of the many international institutions. It may be universal or general, binding upon all states, or regional, binding upon a select group of states.

International law has no legislature. There is no system of courts operating outside the situation when both parties agree and recognize the concerned Court. International law is constituted in a very different manner than domestic law. Also, there is no unified system of sanctions in international law, but there are circumstances in which the use of force is regarded as justified and legal. Within the United Nations, the Security Council can impose sanctions upon the determination of a threat to the peace, a breach of the peace or an act of aggression. Such sanctions may be economic or military. Another justification of the use of force is in the case of self-defense, but it is bound to rules provided by international law. It is important to realize that states do feel the need to obey the rules of international law, because if they do not act accordingly, the system of international law ceases to exist.

The international system

The international system has a horizontal structure; all states are considered equal. In municipal law, the law is above individuals, but in international law the law only exists between the states. Also, in municipal law, the individual has no influence on the creation of law. In international law, states create it themselves, as international law consists mostly of agreements and treaties developed and signed by states. An important element for states in order to obey international law is the principle of reciprocity. States often do not pursue one particular course of action which might bring them short-term gains, because it could

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Handbook of International Law

Handbook of International Law

This summary of Handbook of international Law by Aust is written in 2013


Chapter 1. International law

Private international law and transnational law

The term ‘private international law’ refers to what is known as the ‘conflict of laws’. It covers the body of rules of a State’s domestic law which addresses legal issues with foreign elements; these rules determine which legal rules and jurisdiction are applicable.

A number of institutions are responsible for harmonisation of rules concerning conflict of laws. The Hague Conference on Private International Law, established in 1893 is tasked with the harmonisation of domestic rules on conflict of laws; UNIDROIT is responsible for the harmonisation of commercial domestic laws; UNCITRAL is tasked with harmonising international trade law.

The term ‘transnational law’ primarily connotes the study of the laws of multiple States, comparative law, supranational law, and (commercial) public international law. The study of transnational law gives the impression that the laws of States are becoming ever more similar; however, this is not the case.

The nature of international law

International law is generally known as ‘public international law’ (sometimes also as ‘general international law’), in contrast to the public international law described above. It was previously known as the ‘Law of Nations’. Public international law is the product of the actions of States instead of a single national legal system.

The history of public international law is generally said to have started with Hugo Grotius, a Dutch jurist and diplomat, who lived from 1583 to 1645. Another important event in the early history of Public International Law is the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, which concluded the end of the Thirty Years’ War and the period of feudalism in European history. It also marked the emergence of the modern nation state with a strong centralised government exercising control over its subjects. These new states were in need of rules to govern conduct between them. From the mid-seventeenth century these

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An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure

An Introduction to International Criminal Law and Procedure


Part A: Introduction

Chapter 1: Aspects of international criminal law

Introduction

Public international law primarily regulates interactions between States. However, international criminal law is mainly concerned with the conduct of individual persons. If persons violate international laws, that imposes the obligation on States to penalise such actions. International criminal law has been rapidly developing following the Second World War. This means that the broader field of international law is increasingly focusing on protecting humans rather than only the interests and obligations of States. An exception to this is that the crime of aggression can only be committed by (high-ranking) State officials. The project of international criminal law is quite recent.. Especially the Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda established in the 1990s have been important for its case law. International criminal courts and tribunals courts do not possess universal jurisdiction. Their rules are not always homogeneous or consistent. This can be explained partially by the fact that international criminal rules derive from a variety of sources. War crimes, for example, have developed from international humanitarian law. Genocide and crimes against humanity have evolved together with international human rights standards. War crimes, genocide, crimes against humanity and the crime of aggression constitute the most important crimes on which international law focuses. These are also the.....read more

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Supersummary International Law - Anders Henriksen

Supersummary International Law - Anders Henriksen

With this book, Anders Henriksen has created a complete overview of international law. The book starts of with the basics of international law. All the important terms are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between international and national but also EU-law.

After the explanation of the basics, different types of law are discussed. The influence of international law is made claer in this respect. The law of the sea, human rights law, environmental law and economic law all fall under international law for some part, but they differ from eachother in certain aspects. What complicates this even more, is that states and international organizations also have established their own rules. 

Lastly, it is discussed how international law can be enforced and what happens when it is not obeyed. The book touches on peacefull dispute setlement, use of force, armed conflicts and international criminal law, and the relation between these breaches and solutions of international law. 

The book is written especially for students, so everything is neatly structured and clearly explained. This book is perfect for beginning students who are just starting to learn about international law but also provides a very complete and detailed understanding of international law. The fact that de book starts of with the basics and later dives into the more complex issues, makes the material very understandable.

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International business & strategy: The best concepts summarized
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Culturele antropologie: De beste studieboeken samengevat

Culturele antropologie: De beste studieboeken samengevat

Samenvattingen en studiehulp bij Culturele antropologie

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  • Comparative anthropology and ethnography: De beste studieboeken samengevat
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Internationale communicatie en interculturele communicatie: De beste studieboeken samengevat

Internationale communicatie en interculturele communicatie: De beste studieboeken samengevat

Samenvattingen en studiehulp bij Internationale communicatie en interculturele communicatie

Inhoudsopgave

Nederlands:

  • Samenvatting bij het boek: Interculturele Communicatie van Nunez en Popma - 3e druk
  • Samenvatting bij het boek: McQuails Mass Communication theory van McQuail

Engels:

  • Summary with the book: Cross-Cultural Management by Thomas and Peterson - 4th edition
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Europees recht en de Europese Unie: De beste studieboeken samengevat

Europees recht en de Europese Unie: De beste studieboeken samengevat

Samenvattingen en studiehulp bij Europees recht en de Europese Unie

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  • Samenvatting bij het boek: EU law: Text, Cases, and Materials van Craig en De Burca - 6e druk
  • Samenvatting bij het boek: An introduction to European law van Schütze - 1e druk
  • Samenvatting bij het boek: European Union Law van Chalmers - 2e druk
  • Samenvatting bij het boek: Europees Recht: Algemeen deel van Eijsbouts e.a. - 6e druk
  • Samenvatting bij het boek: Recht van de Europese Unie van Amtenbrink en Vedder - 3e druk
  • Samenvatting bij het boek: Hoofdstukken uit de Europese codificatiegeschiedenis van Lokin
.......read more
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