# Recognizing commonly used statistical symbols: greek, latin and mathematical

## Recognizing commonly used statistical symbols

• In statistics, you will come across many symbols. Most of the statistical symbols are greek, latin and mathematical symbols and each has a different meaning in statistics.
• On this page you will find the most commonly used statistical symbols in alphabetical order with their name and meaning for a quick reference.

## Commonly used greek symbols

SignDescriptionMeaning in statistics
$\huge{\alpha}$Alpha

Chance of type I error

$\huge\beta$Beta

Chance of type II error

$\huge\beta_i$Beta of i

Standardised regression coëfficiënt

$\huge\epsilon$Epsilon

Error

$\huge\eta^2$Eta squared

Measurement of effect size

$\huge\mu$Mu

Mean of scores of population

$\huge\rho$Rho

Correlation in population

$\huge\sigma$Sigma

Standard deviation

$\huge\sigma^2$Sigma squared

Variance of population

$\huge\sigma_x$

Standard error

$\huge\tau$Kendall’s Tau

A non-parametric correlation coefficient

$\huge\varphi$Phi

Association between two categorical variables

$\huge \chi^2$Chi-square

Association between two categorical variables

$\huge\omega^2$Omega squared

Measurement of effect size

## Commonly used latin symbols

SignMeaning in statistics
$\huge b_i$Regression coefficient
$\huge df$Degrees of freedom
$\huge e_i$Error associated with variable i
$\huge F$F-statistic
$\huge H$Kruskall-Wallis test statistic
$\huge k$Number of levels of variables
$\huge ln$Natural logarithm
$\huge MS$Mean squared error
$\huge N, n, n_1$Size of sample of population
$\huge P$Probablity
$\huge r$Pearson’s correlationcoefficient
$\huge r_s$Spearman’s rank correlationcoefficient
$\huge r_b$Biserial correlationcoefficient
$\huge r$Multiple correlationcoefficient
$\huge R^2$Determination coefficient
$\huge s$Standard deviation of sample of population
$\huge s^2$Variance of sample of population
$\huge SS$Sum of squares
$\huge SSA$Sum of squares of variable A
$\huge SS_M$Model of sum of squares
$\huge SS_R$Rest sum of squares
$\huge SST$Total sum of squares
$\huge t$Test statistic for t-test
$\huge t$Test statistic for Wilcoxon’s matched-pairs signed-rank test
$\huge U$Test statistic for Mann-Whitney test
$\huge W_s$Test statistic for Wilcoxon’s rank-sum test
$\huge\bar{x}$Mean of sample scores
$\huge z$Point of data expressed in units of standard deviation

## Commonly used mathematical symbols

SignDescriptionMeaning in statistics
$\huge\bar{\small[value]}$Bar notationMean of: [value], or everything directly below the bar sign
$\huge\hat{\small[value]}$Hat operator notationEstimator (or predicted value of a sample) of: [value], or everything directly below the hat operator sign
$\LARGE\prod \small[value]$Product notationMultiplying of: [value], or everything directly after the product sign
$\LARGE\sum \small[value]$Sigma notationSummification of: [value], or everything directly after the sigma sign
$\huge\sqrt{\small[value]}$Square root notationSquare root of: [value], or everything directly after the square root sign

## More knowledge and assistance for recognizing statistical symbols

### See below for

• What is the difference between Greek and Latin letters in statistics?
• Video for basic statistical symbols
• Glossary, video
• Related topics for encountering and understanding and applying statistics
• Updates for WorldSupporter Statistics
• Statistics: Magazines for encountering Statistics
• Statistics: Magazines for understanding statistics
• Statistics: Magazines for applying statistics

## Knowledge and assistance for recognizing statistical symbols

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