Examtests with the 7th edition of An Introduction to Social Psychology by Hewstone et al.


Which research methods are used in social psychology? - ExamTest 2

Questions

Question 1

If social psychologists use descriptive methods, this means that they:

  1. Set up an experiment to demonstrate causal relationships.
  2. Summarize data collected in previous studies.
  3. Using self-reporting in questionnaires.
  4. Observing how people behave in daily life.

Question 2

If a researcher examines the influence of temperature on mood, then temperature is:

  1. The dependent variable.
  2. The independent variable.
  3. The causal variable.
  4. Correlated.

Question 3

What is validity?

Question 4

State an advantage and a disadvantage of internet-experiments.

Question 5

What is the main difference between an experiment and a quasi-experiment?

Answers

Question 1

C. Using self-reporting in questionnaires.

Question 2

B. The independent variable.

Question 3

This looks at whether the test really measures what it’s supposed to measure.

Question 4

An advantage is that much data (from over the world) can be gathered in a short period of time and a disadvantage is that there is not much control for the researcher.

Question 5

In an experiment, participants are randomly assigned to the conditions, while in a quasi-experiment they are not.

What is social perception? - ExamTest 3

Questions

Question 1

When making causal attributions, we must determine whether the behavior was caused by

  1. Consensus or consistency.
  2. Objective or subjective causes.
  3. Internal or external causes.
  4. One person or the other.

Question 2

Imagine that you perform very well on this exam. Afterwards you attribute this to a good tip you received: that chapters 3 and 7 are important. What kind of self-attribution do you make here?

  1. External, stable.
  2. Internal, unstable.
  3. External, unstable.
  4. Internal, stable.

Question 3

Like all her friends, Julia is always afraid of the neighbor's cat. Julia is hardly ever afraid of other cats. According to Kelley's attribution model, the attribution that follows from this is ……

  1. A mixed (Julia's behavior has internal and external causes).
  2. An internal (about Julia).
  3. An external (about the cat).
  4. This cannot be determined on the basis of this information.

Question 4

You take an exam and have to guess a lot of questions. You are a good gambler and get a high mark. You conclude that you have understood what the exam was about. What kind of attribution is this?

  1. A fundamental, false, attribution.
  2. An external attribution.
  3. An unreal attribution.
  4. An internal attribution.

Question 5

Which of the answers below is NOT some kind of information from Kelley's covariation model?

  1. Consistency.
  2. Distinctiveness.
  3. Consensus.
  4. Correspondence.

Question 6

Depressed people tend to take

  1. "Self-serving" attribution,
  2. Make "self-enhancing" attributions,
  3. Not to make "self-serving" attributions,
  4. Wanting to eat more,

Question 7

What is the covariation theory?

Question 8

What does the principle ‘distinctiveness’ refer to?

Question 9

Our expectations about how other people ought to behave can interfere with our interpretations, is ascribed in what attribution bias?

  1. Self-attribution bias.
  2. Self-serving attribution bias.
  3. False consensus bias.

Answers

Question 1

C. Internal or external causes.

Question 2

C. External, unstable.

Question 3

C. An external (about the cat).

Question 4

D. An internal attribution.

Question 5

D. Correspondence.

Question 6

C. Not to make "self-serving" attributions,

Question 7

According to this theory, people can make internal (it’s due to the person) and external (it’s due to the situation) attributions.

Question 8

The extent to which a person reacts on different objects under different circumstances

Question 9

C. False consensus bias.

What is social cognition? - ExamTest 4

Questions

Question 1

Anna assumes that all Germans have an aversion to homosexuals. This is an example of:

  1. A stereotype.
  2. A social norm.
  3. A prejudice.
  4. Discrimination.

Question 2

If you are in a good mood, you will take.

  1. Make less use of stereotypes.
  2. Make more use of complex scripts.
  3. Rather read the newspaper than a magazine.
  4. Make more use of heuristics.

Question 3

The basic attribution error is

  1. The tendency to attribute success to internal causes.
  2. The tendency to want to find a cause for every event.
  3. The tendency to underestimate situational causes for the behavior of others.
  4. The tendency to want to see yourself as positive.

Question 4

In what state of mind are people best able to process information systematically?

  1. A positive state of mind.
  2. A neutral state of mind.
  3. A negative state of mind.
  4. Both in a positive and negative state of mind.

Question 5

Wim first calls his grandfather. Then he calls his boyfriend. In the second call he talks louder and slower than usual. What is this phenomenon called?

  1. Priming.
  2. Emotional contagion.
  3. Voice effect.
  4. Imitation (mimicry).

Question 6

In some TV commercials, humor is used to make viewers feel positive. Advertisers hope that this will make the product on display sell better. Which attitude formation process is used here?

  1. Instrumental conditioning.
  2. Classic conditioning.
  3. Observational learning.
  4. Experience (mere exposure).

Question 7

Which of the statements is/are true?

I. Priming can elicit implicit goals and these in turn can affect stereotype activation.

II. When we are aware that we have the tendency to stereotype, and when we have the capacity and motivation to control our thoughts, we are still not able to control the tendency to stereotype.

  1. I is true.
  2. II is true.
  3. Both I and II are true.

Answers

Question 1

A. A stereotype.

Question 2

D. Make more use of heuristics.

Question 3

C. The tendency to underestimate situational causes for the behavior of others.

Question 4

C. A negative state of mind.

Question 5

A. Priming.

Question 6

A. Instrumental conditioning.

Question 7

A. I is true.

What is the self? - ExamTest 5

Questions

Question 1

The Terror Management Theory is based on:

  1. People's fear of terror.
  2. The different reactions to death from culture to culture.
  3. People's fear of death.
  4. The automatic fear response in dangerous situations.

Question 2

What does recent cultural psychological research into self-enhancement show?

  1. That people in collectivist cultures do more self-effacement.
  2. That people in individualistic and collectivist cultures both practice self-enhancement, but that the culture determines how they do this.
  3. That people in collective cultures do not practice self-enhancement.
  4. That people in individualistic cultures do more self-enhancement.

Question 3

Which of the following provides the most complete and accurate description of the self-concept?

  1. It subconsciously and automatically affects every thought, action and feeling.
  2. It makes us feel that we exist.
  3. It ensures that we know exactly who we are.
  4. It makes us feel good about ourselves.

Question 4

Why isn’t introspection a good tool to getting to know ourselves?

Question 5

Which sentence(s) is/are true?

I. Self-categorization theory suggests that people divide the world into ingroups and outgroups, but this is not done with motivation; it’s a side-effect of the process of perception.

II. The social comparison theory states that we only compare ourselves with people who are lower than us.

  1. I is true.
  2. II is true.
  3. I and II are true.

Question 6

What is the self-reference effect?

Answers

Question 1

A. People's fear of terror.

Question 2

B. That people in individualistic and collectivist cultures both practice self-enhancement, but that the culture determines how they do this.

Question 3

A. It subconsciously and automatically affects every thought, action and feeling.

Question 4

This method of obtaining self-knowledge is flawed not only because of the automatic element of much of our cognitive processing, but also because of personal biases and wishes that make it hard to judge ourselves accurately. People do not know how their minds work and when they feel like they do know, they’re often simply rationalizing their thoughts and behaviours.

Question 5

A. I is true.

Question 6

Information that is related to the self is processed faster and easier to remember than other information.

What is an attitude? - ExamTest 6

Questions

Question 1

Which of the following statements does not fit the social psychological concept of attitudes?

  1. An attitude is an overall evaluation of an object.
  2. Attitudes are either positive or negative.
  3. Attitudes can differ in valence.
  4. An attitude is based on cognitive, affective and behavioral information.

Question 2

You are at the station in the evening and you are hungry. You go to the kiosk and ask for a sandwich. They only have a very expensive sausage roll. You don't like sausage rolls, but you buy one anyway. What does this decision lead to according to the dissonance theory?

  1. You walk faster to the train.
  2. You think the sausage roll is dirtier than if it were cheaper.
  3. You like the sausage roll better than if it were cheaper.
  4. The sausage roll tastes just as it always does.

Question 3

What are the three components of attitudes, according to the multicomponent model of attitudes?

Question 4

What is the Theory of Reasoned Action?

Answers

Question 1

B. Attitudes are either positive or negative.

Question 2

C. You like the sausage roll better than if it were cheaper.

Question 3

Cognitive, affective and behavioural precursors.

Question 4

The theory of reasoned action (TRA) is a model that predicts behaviour by looking at behavioural intentions determined by attitudes and subjective norms.

What strategies are there for changing attitude and behavior? - ExamTest 7

Questions

Question 1

An advertiser makes a new advertisement for toothpaste. The ad focuses on the new enzymes contained in the toothpaste that make it more effective against tooth decay. Which audience is most receptive to this message according to the elaboration likelihood model (ELM)?

  1. An audience is not motivated and does not have cognitive capabilities to process the message.
  2. An audience that is very intelligent and does not have the cognitive capabilities to process the message.
  3. An audience that is motivated and has the cognitive capabilities to process the message.
  4. An audience that is very intelligent but has the cognitive capabilities to process the message.

Question 2

What is cognitive dissonance?

Question 3

According to McGuire’s information processing model, the persuasive impact of a message results from five steps. Which one is not part of those steps?

  1. Behaviour.
  2. Reversion.
  3. Comprehension.

Answers

Question 1

C. An audience that is motivated and has the cognitive capabilities to process the message.

Question 2

Cognitive dissonance is the uncomfortable tension when our beliefs and our actions don’t match, a state which we are highly motivated to reduce.

Question 3

B. Reversion.

What is social influence? - ExamTest 8

Questions

Question 1

In the lines experiment of Asch (1951, 1956):

  1. Participants tended to answer the same as the confederates, even when the answer was clearly wrong.
  2. Participants openly pressured each other to give the correct answer.
  3. Participants showed informational compliance.
  4. The experimenter emphasized the importance of consensus.

Question 2

Duncan knows that society disapproves of alcohol consumption among young people; he also knows that many of his friends drink on the weekends. The realization that this behavior is disapproved represents (I), while the knowledge that many young people drink represents (II).

  1. (I) An injunctive norm; (II) a descriptive norm.
  2. (I) A descriptive norm; (II) an injunctive norm.
  3. (I) A descriptive norm; (II) conformism.
  4. (I) An injunctive norm; (II) conformism.

Question 3

According to Festinger's social comparison theory, why do we compare our opinions with those of others?

  1. To classify our own opinions.
  2. To make a social ranking of people who perform better and worse.
  3. To reduce uncertainty.
  4. To understand social reality and collect information.

Question 4

Group polarization takes place when:

  1. Individuals make riskier decisions when alone than in a group.
  2. Having opposing views in a group leads to the formation of two or more subgroups.
  3. The opinion of the minority is rejected.
  4. The group's initial opinions become more intense during the interaction.

Question 5

Groupthink is the result of excessive emphasis on:

  1. The uniqueness of the individual.
  2. Listening to the views of the minority.
  3. Striving for consensus.
  4. Exchanging Unique Information.

Question 6

What is not one of the explanations for social facilitation/social inhibition?

  1. Evaluation apprehension.
  2. Conflicting attention.
  3. Social norms.

Question 7

What is the difference between descriptive and injunctive norms?

Question 8

What can be a consequence of de-individuation?

Question 9

Which influence technique is used in the following description: A salesperson makes an extreme request (which is refused), then he makes a more reasonable request?

Question 10

Name two factors that impact the level of conformity.

Question 11

What does group polarization refer to?

Answers

Question 1

A. Participants tended to answer the same as the confederates, even when the answer was clearly wrong.

Question 2

A. (I) An injunctive norm; (II) a descriptive norm.

Question 3

D. To understand social reality and collect information.

Question 4

D. The group's initial opinions become more intense during the interaction.

Question 5

C. Striving for consensus.

Question 6

C. Social norms.

Question 7

A descriptive norm tells you what others actually do in a particular situation, while injunctive norms tell you what you should do.

Question 8

Because people are deprived of their sense of individual identity, they are more likely to behave in an extreme way that violates norms and is anti-social.

Question 9

Door-in-the-face technique.

Question 10

The answer should consist of two of the following: group size, unanimity, social support and culture.

Question 11

Making a more extreme decision in groups, than the individual would make.

What is aggression? - ExamTest 9

Questions

Question 1

Willem has promised a roommate to bring a pack of coffee from the supermarket. But his roommate was terribly unkind to him last night, and he deliberately decides to "forget" it. This form of aggression is:

  1. Active.
  2. Indirect.
  3. Evasive.
  4. Instrumental.

Question 2

According to Berkowitz's cognitive neo-association theory, what causes emotional aggression?

  1. Frustration.
  2. Pain.
  3. Sleep deprivation.
  4. All of the above answers are correct.

Answers

Question 1

B. Indirect.

Question 2

D. All of the above answers are correct.

What is prosocial behavior? - ExamTest 10

Questions

Question 1

What is NOT a possible cause of the bystander effect?

  1. Pluralistic ignorance.
  2. Diffusion of responsibility (distributed responsibility).
  3. Inhibition of the public.
  4. Victim Devaluation.

Question 2

How does the negative-state-relief model try to explain the helping behaviour of people?

Question 3

Explain how pluralistic ignorance can result into the bystander effect.

Question 4

What does the kin selection theory refer to?

Answers

Question 1

D. Victim Devaluation.

Question 2

According to this model, humans have an innate drive to reduce their negative moods and helping behaviour can elevate mood.

Question 3

Emergencies are unpredictable, infrequent, and risky. When presented with a situation that is sudden and unfamiliar, we may spend time trying to figure out what’s going on – the more people are around us, the more we will look for others for cues. If everyone is doing this, nobody will act.

Question 4

Kin selection theory proposes that we have evolved to favour people genetically related to us and are more likely to help close relatives than strangers.

What is attraction? - ExamTest 11

Questions

Question 1

We are more often attracted to people who are around us a lot. Why is it like that?

  1. You will meet someone close earlier and it takes less effort to maintain contact.
  2. Regular contact provides more information about that person.
  3. The more we are exposed to a stimulus, the more likely we are to sympathize with it.
  4. All of the above answers are correct.

Question 2

What does proximity (when it comes to liking) refer to?

Question 3

What are the other two factors that can influence liking?

Question 4

What is passionate love?

Question 5

What is the difference between an exchange relationship and a communal relationship?

Answers

Question 1

D. All of the above answers are correct.

Question 2

Being physically close to others (proximity) has been shown to increase the chance of becoming friends with them. This means that you’re more likely to be friends with your roommate, or your neighbor, than you are with someone who lives a 10 minute drive away.

Question 3

Familiarity and similarity.

Question 4

This is an intense state of love, usually characterized by intrusive thinking and preoccupation with the partner, idealization of the other and the desire to know the other and be known by them.

Question 5

In an exchange relationship, people are concerned with what their partner gets and what they themselves receive to ensure equitable benefits. A communal relationship is one in which the individual is more concerned with what their partner gets than what they themselves receive, and tend to put the other person’s concerns above their own.

What are group dynamics? - ExamTest 12

Questions

Question 1

What happens in the ‘storming stage’ of group development?

Question 2

What are the other four stages?

Question 3

What is re-socialization?

Question 4

What does entitativity refer to?

Answers

Question 1

There is a high conflict in the group, as members resist influence and disagree.

Question 2

Forming, norming, performing and adjourning.

Question 3

When a person is divergent, this person will become a marginal group member, until he exits.

Question 4

The degree to which the collection of people is perceived as being bonded together in a coherent unit.

What is group performance? - ExamTest 13

Questions

Question 1

What is the difference between actual and potential group performance?

Question 2

What type of task is brainstorming?

  1. Disjunctive.
  2. Additive.
  3. Conjunctive.

Question 3

What is the sucker effect?

Question 4

Why is it more likely that the Köhler effect would occur in conjunctive tasks?

Question 5

What are contingency approaches focus on when we look at leadership?

  1. Dynamics between leader and follower.
  2. Personality characteristics of leaders.
  3. The role situational factors play.

Question 6

What is transactional leadership?

Answers

Question 1

Potential group performance is a calculation of how productive each individual member would be if the task was split up. Actual group performance is how productive the group is when working as a group.

Question 2

B. Additive.

Question 3

When an individual group member suspects that others are slacking off, they lower their own efforts to avoid becoming the “sucker”.

Question 4

According to the Köhler effect, members may work harder than they would individually because they don’t want to be responsible for weak group performance. In conjunctive tasks, a team is as strong as its weakest link.

Question 5

C. The role situational factors play.

Question 6

Transactional leadership looks at the exchange of goods. A leader gives followers something they want and the leader gets something he wants in return.

What are prejudices? - ExamTest 14

Questions

Question 1

Categorization is useful, because categorization

  1. Leads to more accurate social perception.
  2. Encourages to take more time to make judgments about others.
  3. Releases additional cognitive reserves.
  4. Reduces cognitive load.

Question 2

Which aspect of the identity becomes salient when you make a comparison between the Dutch and the Japanese?

  1. Personal identity.
  2. Social identity.
  3. Relational identity.
  4. Individual identity.

Answers

Question 1

D. Reduces cognitive load.

Question 2

B. Social identity.

What is cultural social psychology? - ExamTest 15

Questions

Question 1

What does WEIRD stand for?

Question 2

Where does ‘Uncertainty avoidance’ refer to in Hofstede’s model?

Question 3

What is assimilation?

Question 4

Which acculturation type do migrants prefer?

Answers

Question 1

Western/White, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic.

Question 2

The extent to which a nation is averse to risk and uncertainty.

Question 3

A acculturation strategy, that is characterized by the importance of maintaining a positive relationship with the host country, and no importance to maintain the own cultural identity.

Question 4

Integration.

Check page access:
Public
Work for WorldSupporter

Image

JoHo can really use your help!  Check out the various student jobs here that match your studies, improve your competencies, strengthen your CV and contribute to a more tolerant world

Working for JoHo as a student in Leyden

Parttime werken voor JoHo

Check more of this topic?
How to use more summaries?


Online access to all summaries, study notes en practice exams

Using and finding summaries, study notes en practice exams on JoHo WorldSupporter

There are several ways to navigate the large amount of summaries, study notes en practice exams on JoHo WorldSupporter.

  1. Starting Pages: for some fields of study and some university curricula editors have created (start) magazines where customised selections of summaries are put together to smoothen navigation. When you have found a magazine of your likings, add that page to your favorites so you can easily go to that starting point directly from your profile during future visits. Below you will find some start magazines per field of study
  2. Use the menu above every page to go to one of the main starting pages
  3. Tags & Taxonomy: gives you insight in the amount of summaries that are tagged by authors on specific subjects. This type of navigation can help find summaries that you could have missed when just using the search tools. Tags are organised per field of study and per study institution. Note: not all content is tagged thoroughly, so when this approach doesn't give the results you were looking for, please check the search tool as back up
  4. Follow authors or (study) organizations: by following individual users, authors and your study organizations you are likely to discover more relevant study materials.
  5. Search tool : 'quick & dirty'- not very elegant but the fastest way to find a specific summary of a book or study assistance with a specific course or subject. The search tool is also available at the bottom of most pages

Do you want to share your summaries with JoHo WorldSupporter and its visitors?

Quicklinks to fields of study (main tags and taxonomy terms)

Field of study

Access level of this page
  • Public
  • WorldSupporters only
  • JoHo members
  • Private
Statistics
544
Comments, Compliments & Kudos:

Add new contribution

CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.
Image CAPTCHA
Enter the characters shown in the image.
Promotions
Image
The JoHo Insurances Foundation is specialized in insurances for travel, work, study, volunteer, internships an long stay abroad
Check the options on joho.org (international insurances) or go direct to JoHo's https://www.expatinsurances.org