Examtests with the 2nd edition of Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience by Purves et al.


What is Cognitive Neuroscience? - ExamTests 1

MC-questions

Question 1

What is true about TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)?

  1. It activates a relatively small volume of cortex, roughly equivalent to an MRI voxel.

  2. It is an invase technique that can only be performed on anaesthetized humans.

  3. It involves a short-lived magnetic field over a specific area of the skull, with which a specific part of the brain can be stimulated.

Open questions

Question 2

What are the advantages of using multiple methods over just using one method?

Answer indication

Question 1

C. It involves a short-lived magnetic field over a specific area of the skull, with which a specific part of the brain can be stimulated.

Question 2

There are two advantages. Using multiple methods leads to convergence as well as complementarity. Convergence refers to using different studies to reinforce the results. When you perform multiple, different studies but still obtain the same result, your result is more reliable. Complementarity refers to the unique combination of different methods to study a concept. For example, using fMRI to measure blood and oxygen levels and using single-unit recordings to see how neurons transmit information.

Which methods and techniques are used within Cognitive Neuroscience? - ExamTests 2

MC-questions

Question 1

What is the inverse problem?

  1. It stems from a troubling dependency of individual scalp electrodes to reverse polarity

  2. It stems from the inverse electrical polarities encountered in the occipital and frontal cortices

  3. It concerns ambiguities in the spatial origin of the EEG signal

Open questions

Question 2

What is a double dissociation?

Answer indication

Question 1

C. It concerns ambiguities in the spatial origin of the EEG signal

Question 2

A double dissociation is found when function A is affected when brain part A is damaged, but not when part B is damaged.

How does visual perception take place? - ExamTests 3

MC-questions

Question 1

What is prosopagnosia?

  1. An inability to recognize speech

  2. An inability to recognize gender

  3. An inability to recognize faces

Open questions

Question 2

What is synaesthesia?

Answer indication

Question 1

C. An inability to recognize faces

Question 2

When people have synaesthesia, this means that they mix different sensory experiences. For example, they see the letter 'X', in the color blue. There are different forms of synaesthesia, and it is not yet clear how it develops.

How does auditory, mechanosensory and chemical sensory perception take place? - ExamTests 4

MC-questions

Question 1

What is true about the primary auditory cortex?

  1. It receives most of the signals from the hypothalamus

  2. It receives most of the signals from the hippocampus

  3. It receives most of the signals from the amygdala

Answer indication

Question 1

A. It receives most of the signals from the hypothalamus

How is action organized in the motor systems? - ExamTests 5

MC-questions

Question 1

What is apraxia?

  1. It reflects a deficit in the ability to perform any movement

  2. It reflects a deficit in the ability to perform earlier learned movements

  3. It reflects a deficit in the ability to produce speech

Answer indication

Question 1

B. It reflects a deficit in the ability to perform earlier learned movements

What are the effects of attention on stimulus processing? - ExamTests 6

MC-questions

Question 1

What is correct regarding the ERP in the ‘attentional blink’?

  1. There is a reduced P1 and N1

  2. There is a reduced N300

  3. There is a N400 visible

Question 2

What is true about the MMN?

  1. It is an ERP component that is the result of the perception of an abnormal stimulus.

  2. It is used as a marker of auditory feature analysis

  3. It starts at about 300 ms at the earliest

Question 3

Attention-related reentrant activity refers to...

  1. Mutual interactions between competing stimuli

  2. Activation of higher-level sensory cortical areas before activation of early level areas

  3. A return of attention-related activity to low-level sensory cortical areas

Open questions

Question 4

What is the Cocktail Party Effect and what is it related to?

Answer indication

Question 1

C. There is a N400 visible

Question 2

A. It is an ERP component that is the result of the perception of an abnormal stimulus.

Question 3

C. A return of attention-related activity to low-level sensory cortical areas

Question 4

The Cocktail Party Effect has to do with attention. It refers to that when you are at a busy party, you are able to focus on your conversation, even though there is a lot of noise in the area.

How is attention controlled? - ExamTests 7

MC-questions

Question 1

What are pop-out stimuli?

  1. Stimuli that have a very strange colour

  2. Stimuli that have a large size

  3. Stimuli that differ on one characteristic compared to the other stimuli

Answer indication

Question 1

C. Stimuli that differ on one characteristic compared to the other stimuli

What variations and mechanisms are there in our memory? - ExamTests 8

MC-questions

Question 1

What are the three different processes of the memory?

  1. Encoding, retrieval, and storage

  2. Encrypting, rehearsal, and storage

  3. Assembling, retrieval, and storage

Answer indication

Question 1

A. Encoding, retrieval, and storage

What is the declarative memory? - ExamTests 9

Questions

Question 1

Retrograde amnesia refers to…

  1. Memory loss of information before brain damage

  2. Memory loss of information after brain damage

  3. Memory loss in general

Answer indication

Question 1

A. Memory loss of information before brain damage

What can be said about emotions from the perspective of the cognitive neuroscience? - ExamTests 10

MC-questions

Question 1

According to Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis, ...

  1. there are internal representations of different bodily states that mark personal consequences of actions to particular situations.

  2. each emotion has a different sensory receptive field.

  3. the integrity and functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is instrumental in learning associations that determine future consequences.

Open questions

Question 2

What are two effects of emotions on memories?

Answer indication

Question 1

A. There are internal representations of different bodily states that mark personal consequences of actions to particular situations.

Question 2

First, flashbulb memories are vivid memories of an event. Because of heightened arousal, these events are better remembered on the long-term. The emotion enhancement hypothesis states that memory consolidation is heightened because of emotional arousal. Second, chronic stress may produce longlasting high cortisol levels, which may damage the hippocampus and impair memory.

How does social cognition take place according to the cognitive neuroscience? - ExamTests 11

MC-questions

Question 1

What is the basis for self-reflective thoughts?

  1. Being able to produce speech

  2. Awareness of one’s physical state

  3. Awareness of others’ actions

Answer indication

Question 1

B. Awareness of one’s physical state

What is the perspective of the cognitive neuroscience on language? - ExamTests 12

MC-questions

Question 1

What is true about language?

  1. Everyone can learn a new language, regardless of their age

  2. There is a critical period for learning language

  3. Children experience difficulties when they are raised bilateral

Answer indication

Question 1

B. There is a critical period for learning language

What can be said about executive functions from the perspective of cognitive neuroscience? - ExamTests 13

MC-questions

Question 1

What can be said about the environment-dependent syndrome? Patients with this syndrome…

  1. Easily change their behavior according to their environment

  2. Show behaviors that are determined by their environment

  3. Learn behaviors easily in different environments

Answer indication

Question 1

B. Show behaviors that are determined by their environment

How are choices made? - ExamTests 14

MC-questions

Question 1

What is true about gambling addiction?

  1. Pathological gamblers are most common in men between the ages of 18 and 30

  2. Pathological gamblers have abnormal activation patterns in brain areas involved in reward evaluation

  3. Pathological gamblers experience lower negative feelings during losses

Question 2

What happens when rats are injected with a lot of dopamine?

  1. They run around, showing happiness

  2. They have more sex

  3. They do not eat, even when they are hungry

Question 3

What is statement is true?

I. People choose for 110 euro after 52 weeks instead of 100 euros after 51 weeks.

II. People choose for 110 euro after a week instead of 100 euros now

  1. Only statement I is true

  2. Only statement II is true

  3. Both statements are true

Question 4

What can be said about dopamine?

  1. It is about wanting rather than liking

  2. It is about liking rather than wanting

  3. It is about liking as well as wanting

Open questions

Question 5

Dopaminergic reward mechanisms are part of so called actor-critic learning models, in which the ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra, and the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) constitute the critic and the dorsal basal ganglia are a crucial part of the actor system. Explain how this critic-actor ensemble is capable of learning to associate actions with (expected) rewards.

Question 6

What are heuristics? And what is the endowment heuristic?

Answer indication

Question 1

B. Pathological gamblers have abnormal activation patterns in brain areas involved in reward evaluation

Question 2

C. They do not eat, even when they are hungry

Question 3

A. Only statement I is true

Question 4

A. It is about wanting rather than liking

Question 5

Actor-critic learning models assume that two brain systems exist, a “critic” who evaluates whether rewards are better or worse than expected, and an “actor” who evaluates the values ​​of certain behaviors to increase future rewards. The ventral striatum is associated with the “critic” system that evaluates reward signals through input from the VTA. Neurons in the dorsal striatum are associated with the creation of behavioral plans through the “actor” system.

Question 6

Heuristics are strategies that people use to deal with the world around time in a simpler way. The endowment heuristic states that people value items that they own, as higher compared to when they do not own it.

How has the brain developed and evolved? - ExamTests 15

MC-questions

Question 1

What is true about the savant syndrome?

  1. Savants are people that do poorly on all areas of life

  2. Savants are people that often perform poorly on basic tasks, but they have a extreme talent in one specific task

  3. The savant syndrome occurs after the acquisition of brain damage

Answer indication

Question 1

B. Savants are people that often perform poorly on basic tasks, but they have a extreme talent in one specific task

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