Het onderwerp van dit hoorcollege is intelligentie. Er wordt uitleg gegeven over het ontstaan van de definitie en wat nu precies wordt gehandhaafd als definitie. Daarnaast wordt er kort uitgelegd wat verschillende punten zijn die van invloed zijn op intelligentie.


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      Hoorcollege aantekeningen - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 1 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 1 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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      H C   1   -   2 6   A P R I L   2 0 2 3

      Introduction to the course

      Topics of this course

      • Prenatal development: how does a fertilized egg develop in a baby?
      • Brain development
      • Genetics: nature vs. nurture debate
      • Perceptual development
      • Motor development: how do babies learn to walk etc.
      • Cognitive development: how/when do babies develop thinking/learning
      • Learning
      • Intelligence and academic achievement: what is intelligence and how can you achieve it
      • Language development

      How to give a good oral presentation

      We want the attention of the audience so we focus on:

      • What you say » what makes a good story? The Three Act structure: setup, confrontation and resolution
        • Act 1: exposition (introducing the topic and discussing the relevance of the topic » discuss the problem statement and define the research question)
        • Act 2: rising action (discuss your methods and analysis, discuss your results)
        • Act 3: falling action (discuss what the results mean)
      • How do you say it » who is your audience?
        • Presenting is adapting to the audience and situation.
        • Presenting is attention management » how do you keep the attention of the audience on you?
          • Tempo
          • Intonation (variety in intonation)
          • Emphasis (intonation or gestures)
          • Pauses
          • Articulation
          • Words (adapting your words to your audience) » always use the easiest words)
          • Facial expression (show enthusiasm)
          • Posture
          • Gestures
          • Movement
          • Clothes (professional)
          • Eye contact (most important thing you can do with your body) » if you don’t make eye contact you lose attention of your audience
      • Visual aids
        • Don’t use too much text on your slides » only one message per slide
        • Use attention snatchers:
          • Movement (one of the most important attention snatchers) » don’t use to much movement or it will  be distracting
          • Signal colors
          • High contrast
      Access: 
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      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 2 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 2 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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      H C   2   -   9   M E I   2 0 2 3

      Prenatal development

      WEIRD science

      • Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic
      • These are characteristics of the societies researchers typically gather their data from
      • 95% of the participants in social sciences cover 12% of the world population
      • Participants are in generally not very representative for WEIRD people
      • What we know about development and what we tend to regard as normal and abnormal may only be valid for a selective part of human kind
        • This means we should be careful with generalizing are knowledge and use it as a golden standard for comparisons and assessments
        • It also means we should include more diverse samples in our research

      What is development?

      A specific type of change

      • Qualitative » changes in what there is (not in how much)
      • Sequential » over development some changes precede others (they need to proceed before other development can take place)
      • Cumulative » one developmental stage can build upon other developmental stages
      • Directional » during development things can be build up (progressive) or broken down (regressive)
      • Multifactorial » there is not one factor determining the course of development
      • Individual » developmental pathways are unique for each individual

      Prenatal development

      • Around 20 weeks the female egg cells develop in the embryo
      • Each cell contains a full complement of genetic material (the ‘instruction manual’/blueprint that tells the cell what to be and what to do). This information is described in our genes, and our genes are organized in 23 pairs of chromosomes, 46 in total)
      • Cell division
        • Normal: mitosis » all genetic material is neatly copied and then separated into two full sets so that after the cell division is completed, the resulting to cells each contain an identical full copy of your entire genetic code.
        • Special: meiosis » after the genetic material is copied the dead mom-pairs of chromosomes first exchange genetic information between each other (= crossing over). After that they make a first split, and then split again, ending up with 4 new cells, that each contain a different combination of genetic codes. Each of these 4 new cells contain only half of the blueprint. The other half will be delivered by the other … when the egg is fertilized by the sperm cell.
      • The process of cell division is the basis for genetic variation
        • And therefore the genetic basis for individual differences in all kinds of development
        • It helps us understand the interaction between nature and nurture
          • Monozygotic
      .....read more
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      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 3 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 3 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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      H C   3   -   M E I   2 0 2 3  

      Brain development

      The brain is one of the most complex systems in our body.

      What the brain is made of

      • 100 billion neurons
      • Neurons consist of:
        • Cell body (soma): contains the nucleus (in which all genetic materials are stored) and most cell process take place in the cell body
        • Dendrites: the receiving end of the neuron
        • Axon: it’s much longer than the dendrites and is the sending part of the neuron (it sends signals from one neuron to another)
        • Myeline sheet: cover of the axons. Two important functions:
          • to keep the neuron healthy
          • to speed op signal transduction along the axon
        • axon terminals: where the signal ends up and is transmitted to other cells

      Afbeelding met diagram

Automatisch gegenereerde beschrijving

       

       

       

       

       

      How do neurons communicate

      • Resting potential: when a neuron is not sending any signals, it has a negative potential of 70 millivolts (-70 mV). The negative charge is caused by the distribution of ions (particles with a certain charge, positive or negative) outside and inside the neuron.
        • During the resting state, there are a lot of positive charged sodium ions outside the neuron, while inside the neuron, there are relatively much proteins (that have a negative charge) and some positive charged sodium ions and some positive charged potassium ions.
        • Because there are more positive charged ions outside the neuron, the result is that the neuron has a negative charge of about 70 millivolts
      • In the cell-membrane (walls of the neuron) are a lot of channels through which ions can go in- and outside the neuron » causes the polarity of the neuron to change
      • When the neuron is at rest, the distribution of ions in- and outside is kept relatively stable by the sodium-potassium-pump (consists of special ion channels that always transport three positive sodium ions out of the neuron for every two positive potassium ions that are transported into the neuron)
      • If the amount of positive ions increases so much that the polarity is decreased to threshold value of -55 mV, special voltage gated ion channels are opened through which a lot of positive ions can rush into the neuron. This causes the polarity of the neuron to switch to a positive polarity of 40 mV (called action potential). The spike in positive charge is the signal in the neuron.
      • As the action potential is reached, immediately another channel of voltage gated ions are opened, causing a lot of
      .....read more
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      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 4 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 4 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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      H C   4   -   M E I   2 0 2 3

      Genes & gene-environment interactions

      Ways to investigate whether a trait is determined by genes

      • Twin studies
        • Used to study how much a certain trait or behavior is caused by genetics and how much is caused by the environment
        • Monozygotic share 100% of their genes, they have the same genetic material » the egg split after it was fertilized
        • Dizygotic twins are from two different eggs, fertilized by two different sperm cells » they share 50% of their genes
        • Dizygotic twins are more alike than regular siblings because they share more of the same environment » equal environment assumption (but: twins also have an unshared environment)
      • Adoption studies
        • Adoptive child shares genes with biological parents but environment with adoptive parents
      • From twin- and adoption studies we can calculate a heritability rate » 0-1 (1 = 100% influenced by genes, 0 = genes don’t play any role)
      • Genetic amplification: increasing of heritability rate from childhood to young adulthood
      • Active model of selected environments: we actively choose our environment, and that’s often based on our genetic predisposition

      How do genes work and interact

      • Genotype: the genetic material inherited from our parents
      • Phenotype: observable expression of the genotype (e.g. height, behavior)
      • Environment: everything other than the genes
      • Parents genotype – child genotype relation (transmission):
        • We have 100 trillion cells, each of these cells contains a nucleus (center of the cell) » in the nucleus are 46 paired chromosomes (23 pairs) consisting of curled up DNA
        • Gamete: sex cells » they determine the sex of the baby and consist of 23 chromosomes (instead of 46)
        • Zygote: 2 gametes (egg and sperm cell) together » contains 46 chromosomes again
        • Why are siblings not identical (why are the gametes (and thus zygotes) not the same)?
          • Random assortment » in gamete creation and fertilization
          • Crossing over: sections of DNA switch from chromosomes (parts of the DNA are swapped, and when the cells divide, they’re no longer identical)
          • Mutations: accidental changes in DNA (caused by spontaneous error or environmental influences)
      • Child’s genotype – child’s phenotype:
        • Genes are segments of DNA (of a specific type and at a specific location on the chromosome)
        • How do genes work: genes tell cells what to do » by making proteins (DNA is the ‘cookbook’ that contains recipes for making specific proteins)
        • The cells do not all the same because the
      .....read more
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      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 5 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 5 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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      H C   5   -   M E I   2 0 2 3

      Perceptual development

      Difference sensation and perception

      • Sensation: processing of basic information from the external world via receptors in the sense organs and brain  »  five different senses: sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell
      • Perception: processing of organizing and interpreting sensory information about the objects, events and spatial layout of the world around us

      Visual development

      Multiple steps to perception:

      • Processing basic information (sensation)
        • Refers to all the properties of a stimulus (e.g. color, orientation, contrast, spatial frequency)
        • The properties are processed in your brain in the visual cortex
        • The properties enter the eye, after which the information is send to the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) and then processed to V1 (striate cortex) in the visual cortex
        • Preferential looking technique: the check the eyesight of an infant (newborn) » if an infant looks longer at one picture this means two things: The infant can discriminate between the two things and the infant prefers the picture it looks longer at
          • Measures visual acuity (how sharp someone can see) » used for testing spatial frequency and contrast
          • Relation spatial frequency and contrast: if the spatial frequency increases, it’s more difficult to see the contrast and if the contrast becomes very low, we also cannot see a pattern anymore
      • Object segregation » the ability of seeing/identifying different objects.
        • Three relevant processes:
          • Border detection: we need to see where an object ends and another object/the background begins
          • Integration/grouping: we need to know which elements belong to one object
          • Figure-ground segregation: we need to segregate the object from its background
        • Gestalt theory: the whole is more than the sum of its parts. Our mind organizes and interpret visual input according to certain grouping principles
          • Proximity: objects close to each other are grouped together
          • Similarity: elements that are similar are grouped together regardless of their proximity
          • Figure ground: distinguish between the background and the foreground
          • Continuity: we tend to follow the smoothest path when following a line
          • Closure: we tend to fill in the gaps
          • Connectedness: objects that are connected are seen as a whole, are grouped together
        • The grouping principles determine whether we detect an object or not
        • Saccadic eye movement: ‘jumpy’ eye movements, no straight line
        • Smooth tracking: smooth eye movement, can only when following an object (emerge around 7/8 weeks)
      .....read more
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      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 6 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 6 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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      H C   6   -   J U N I   2 0 2 3

      Motor development

      What and why motor development

      • Study of motor development is study of behavioral development
      • Motor behavior requires and reveals the working of the mind
      • Infant motor development include the acquisition of:
        • Basic skills such as moving head and eyes to look around, moving arms and hands to grasp objects and moving the body to sit up or go somewhere
        • Higher-order skills such as stacking boxes
        • Skills to support interaction such as moving face for expressing emotions, moving arms and hands to point and moving mouth to talk
      • Movements are constrained by the current status of the body
      • Movements are shaped by social influences and culturally specific child rearing practices
      • New motor skills create new opportunities for learning and can instigate cascades of development, far afield from the original accomplishment
      • In contrast to perception, cognition and other psychological functions, motor behaviors are directly accessible to observation
      • To study motor development we can observe children in their natural play environment

      Motor milestones

      • The child’s development during the first year of life is especially charactered by very prominent and observable motor development
      • When infants are born they have very little control over their bodies, but as motor development takes place, the infant is gradually able to, for instance, walk on its own. » Motor development allows the infant to being fully dependent to being a mobile child with the ability to move around and interact with objects and people
      • Motor development depends on genetic factors and environmental influences/experiences
      • Milestones can be seen as indicators for the speed of development
      • Motor development is part of the psycho motor development, referring to changes in the child’s perceptual, cognitive, affective, motor and social capabilities
      • There’s variation in the time that children reach these milestones

      Observing motor development

      • Alberta Infant motor Scale (AIMS) » much used in WEIRD samples » standardized observational examination tool used to asses the maturation of the motor skills of infants in 0-18 months
      • Four categories: prow (lying on the belly), spine (lying on the back), sitting position and standing position
      • AIMS home video: parents film their children at home under standardized conditions, after which pediatric physical therapists assess the video

      Early motor development progress

      • Measuring developmental progress ideally takes place by means of multiple, repeated measures overtime
      • Three categories (in a study between Dutch and Canadian children)
        • Late bloomers (do not accelerate in motor growth before 9,5 months)
      .....read more
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      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 7 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 7 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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      H C   7   -   J U N I   2 0 2 3

      Cognitive development

      Major themes regarding to cognitive development

      • Nature vs. nurture
      • The role of the child
      • Continuity vs. discontinuity
      • Mechanisms of change
      • The sociocultural context
      • Individual differences

      Major theories of cognitive development

      • Piaget
      • Information processing
      • Core-knowledge
      • Socio-cultural
      • Dynamic systems

      Jean Piaget

      • Developed his theory by observing his own children
      • His view of children’s nature:
        • Children are mentally active from birth (not before)
        • Their mental and physical activity both contribute to their development
      • Constructivist approach to cognitive development » because the child is very active, these experiences kind of construct the knowledge and cognitive development (children construct knowledge for themselves in response to their experiences)
      • The constructive processes are:
        • Generating hypotheses (because children are curious)
        • Performing experiments (‘see what happens’)
        • Drawing conclusions from their observations (they learn about their environment)
      • Central developmental issues
        • Nature and nurture interact together to produce cognitive development
        • There are stages each child ‘walks through’ (discontinuous), but within each stage takes a continuous development place
        • Main sources of continuity are:
          • Assimilation: the process by which a child incorporates incoming information into concepts they already know (bijv. dat een kind ergens een persoon met donkere huidskleur ziet en denkt dat dat zwarte piet is)
          • Accommodation: the process by which children improve their current understanding based on new experiences
          • Equilibration: the process by which children balance assimilation and accommodation to create a stable understanding
        • Four distinct stages of discontinuous cognitive development (each of these stages is characterized by certain capabilities and limitations):
          • Sensorimotor stage: birth – age 2
            • Sensory and motor abilities are used to explore the world
            • Child learns about objects and people
            • Child learns about rudimentary forms of concepts like time, space and causality
            • Experience is largely in here and now
            • Birth to 1 month: reflexes (e.g. sucking, grasping)
            • Beyond first months: integrating reflexes (e.g. grasping objects, then bringing it to mouth to suck on them)
            • Around 8 months: object permanence (if the object is no longer in the immediate sight of the child, the child knows that the object was there) » mental representation beyond here and now » A-not-B-error (when object is hided in another place, the child can’t find it anymore)
            • Beyond first
      .....read more
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      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 8 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 8 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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      H C   8   -   J U N I   2 0 2 3

      Learning

      Explicit learning = we are aware of the fact that we’re learning

      Implicit learning = we aren’t aware that we’re learning

      Habituation

      = a decrease in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus (it can be any kind of stimulus)

      • Habituation has an adaptive function because if we would focus on/respond strongly to all stimuli, we would be completely overstimulated. We have to focus on the things that are relevant
      • For babies is habituation a way to check what’s new for them or not » an infant can discriminate between what he already knows/what’s familiar and what’s new
      • Signals can do the opposite of habituation (e.g. pain stimuli or smoke alarm)

      What is learning?

      = a change in behavior that results from past experience

      • Basic learning processes:
        • Non-associative learning: habituation and sensitization (you encountered the stimulus before, so you respond more or less to it)
        • Associative learning: classical conditioning and operant/instrumental conditioning
      • Classical conditioning:
        • Starting with unconditioned stimulus » a ‘thing’ that already exists, before any learning takes place
        • Introducing new stimulus » neutral stimulus » will not elicit a response
        • If the unconditioned and neutral stimulus will be offered together several times, the neutral stimulus will become a conditioned stimulus because the person/animal will respond to the stimulus separately from the unconditioned stimulus (e.g. bowl of dog food (unconditioned) and whistle (neutral stimulus) » together » whistle will become conditioned stimulus)

      Acquisition and extinction

      • Acquisition: the amount of time that is needed for the neutral stimulus to become a conditioned stimulus
      • Extinction: if the conditioned stimulus will be presented several times without the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response will extinct (but spontaneously recovery can occur, thus a spontaneous conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus)
      • What influences the speed of acquisition:
        • Intensity
        • Forward pairing of the unconditioned stimulus with the neutral stimulus (forward short-delay paring works the best, thus conditioned stimulus appears first, then the unconditioned stimulus)
        • Repetition is usually necessary, but one-trial learning is possible
      • Does it only work with the same stimulus?
        • Stimulus generalization: the stimulus similar to the initial conditioned stimulus can also elicit a conditioned response
        • Stimulus discrimination: the stimulus similar to the initial conditioned stimulus doesn’t elicit the same conditioned response

       

      • Classical conditioning explains certain psychological problems like phobia: type of anxiety disorder, defined by a persistent and
      .....read more
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      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 9 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

      Aantekeningen hoorcollege 9 - Development, Learning & Behavior - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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      H C   9   -   J U N I   2 0 2 3

      Intelligence & academic achievement

      What is intelligence?

      • Does it even exist or is it something that we invented?
      • Related to three abilities:
        • Acquire knowledge
        • Think and reason effectively
        • Deal adaptively with the environment
      • Different types of intelligence

      What was the first attempt?

      To conceptualize intelligence

      • Francis Galton
        • First to use a questionnaire and survey to collect data on human behavior
        • Intelligence as a heritable trait
        • Conceptualization: energy and sensitivity to stimuli
        • Intelligence has something to do with the size of the skull » he measured skulls but couldn’t find any differences » we now know that not the size of the skull is related to intelligence, but the size of the brain
      • Alfred Binet
        • Asked to develop an easy-to-administer objective test of intelligence for children (Binet-Simon test)
        • For the test he assumed that mental abilities develop with age » with this he could make a distinction between the chronological age and the mental age

      How do we measure intelligence –

      • Binet-Simon intelligent scales
        • Tasks of reasoning and problem solving
          • Verbal reasoning (e.g. defining certain objects)
          • Quantitative reasoning (e.g. counting backwards)
          • Abstract reasoning » involves defining abstract terms and problem questions
          • Short-term memory
        • Main limitations: relies heavily on verbal skills (that’s why it isn’t used often nowadays)
      • Wechsler
        • It relies less on verbal skills. It measures both verbal IQ and performance IQ
        • Based on Carroll’s three striatum theory
        • Version for adults (called WAIS)
        • Version for children 6-18 (called WISC)
        • version for children 2 years and up (called WIPPSI)

      Intelligence quotient

      • IQ = ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100
      • The problem: it doesn’t work anymore at a certain age (it’s likely that for example a 25 year old can’t do a lot more tasks than a 23 y/o)
      • Now based on standardization (with the median)
      • The Flynn effect: gain in mean IQ for world regions (possible through increasing accessibility for schools, longer learning, more experience with testing and (maybe) improving in nutrition)

      What is intelligence?

      • Factor analysis: statistical method to identify clusters of variables that correlate highly with each other » if you score high on one task you will also score high on
      .....read more
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