What is this article about?

Global health and development policies focus mostly on teenage girls, as gender inequalities make them more disadvantaged and vulnerable. However, there are convincing reasons to take a closer look at adolescent boys. Their transition from childhood to adolescence is associated with several health problems and risk factors that influence their health during their whole life (e.g. injuries, violence, suicide, aids, alcohol, drugs, tobacco). Males are also less likely to seek help than females, and their behaviors have a significant impact on the well-being and health of females.


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      Article Summaries of the prescribed literature with the course Youth and Sexuality 22/23 - UU

      Articlesummary with Alfred Kinsey and the Kinsey Report: Historical overview and lasting contributions by Bullough - 1998

      Articlesummary with Alfred Kinsey and the Kinsey Report: Historical overview and lasting contributions by Bullough - 1998


      Who was Alfred Kinsey?

      Alfred Kinsey (1894-1856) was a biologist and sexologist whose research became a worldwide source of information about human sexuality and new standards for sex research. He reoriented the field and moved it away from the medical model to one encompassing a variety of disciplines. His research was foundational to the field of sexology and has influenced social and cultural values all over the world.

      What did science on sexuality look like in the beginning of the twentieth century?

      The modern study of sexuality began in the nineteenth century and was mostly dominated by physicians. Only a few physicians had specialized knowledge on sexual topics other than sexually transmitted diseases, but they were still viewed as the authority when it came to human sexuality. It was assumed that physicians should be the experts regarding sexual activities, since they were the experts on body functions.

      How did Kinsey go into the field of sexology?

      Kinsey was a broad-based scientist at a time when there was plenty of money available for research. He was a person who was not inhibited by body functions and who was very open about talking about sex. To him it represented a new field where little was known and much could be learned. He started gathering information and interviewing his students at the time, which led to resistance around him. He had to choose between teaching and researching and chose the latter. He then spent his time doing thousands of interviews and collecting information about premarital intercourse, frequency of sexual activity and number of partners.

      What is Alfred Kinsey´s legacy?

      Alfred Kinsey´s legacy can be summarized in the following points:

      • He changed the nature of sexual studies.
      • He forced a reexamination of public attitudes toward sex.
      • He challenged the medical and psychiatric establishment to reassess its own views.
      • He influenced the feminist movement and the gay and lesbian movement.
      • He built a library and an institution devoted to sex research.
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      Articlesummary with In pursuit of pleasure: A biopsychosocial perspective on sexual pleasure and gender by Laan a.o. - 2021

      Articlesummary with In pursuit of pleasure: A biopsychosocial perspective on sexual pleasure and gender by Laan a.o. - 2021


      What is sexual pleasure?

      Sexual pleasure is defined as the physical and/or psychological satisfaction and enjoyment derived from shared or solitary erotic experiences, including thoughts, emotions, dreams, fantasies and feelings. Sexual health is usually monitored by looking at contraceptive use, abortions, teenage pregnancies, sexual transmitted infections and sexual violence, but recently sexual pleasure is also starting to be seen as important for sexual health.

      What is the domino theory of sexual peril?

      The domino theory of sexual peril sees sex as an uncontrollable biological force that needs to be repressed (or only allowed within monogamous heterosexual marriages) or it will inevitably lead to societal chaos and anarchy. Western religions used to consider sex to be a dangerous and negative force and medicine and psychiatry used to contribute to these ideas. This has led to a popular culture that believes that erotic variety is dangerous and unhealthy.

      Why should the focus be on a positive approach to sex education (instead of abstinence-only or no sex education)?

      A positive approach to sexual health and sex education has more benefits than risks. Sexual wellbeing is a large construct that includes not only sexual justice and sexual health, but also sexual pleasure. Sexual wellbeing contributes to overall wellbeing and there is scientific evidence which shows that abstinence-only or no sex education at all score worse when it comes to contraceptive use, unwanted pregnancies and having a pleasurable first sexual experience.

      What are the health benefits of sexual pleasure?

      Research results indicate that sexual

      .....read more
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      Articlesummary with Offline and Online Sexual Risk Behavior among Youth in the Netherlands: Findings from 'Sex under the Age of 25" by De Graaf et al. - 2018

      Articlesummary with Offline and Online Sexual Risk Behavior among Youth in the Netherlands: Findings from 'Sex under the Age of 25" by De Graaf et al. - 2018


      What is this study about?

      As children grow up, they naturally begin to explore and develop their sexuality. This process typically starts with less intimate behaviors like kissing and progresses to more intimate behaviors such as oral sex or intercourse. However, as these behaviors become more intimate, they also come with risks. Engaging in unprotected sex can lead to negative health outcomes such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or unwanted pregnancy. Additionally, in today's digital era, young people face new risks related to online sexual behaviors.

      Sexual risk behavior refers to behaviors that increase the chances of unintended pregnancy or STI transmission, including HIV. However, measuring these behaviors is challenging due to survey constraints. Researchers often focus on limited indicators like condom use or number of partners, assuming they represent other risky behaviors. To understand the actual risk level, multiple factors like partner type, specific behaviors, and frequency of sex should be considered. It's important to explore risk reduction strategies, like monogamy, although there's still a risk of infection if a partner has an STI. Research on these strategies among young Europeans is limited, as most studies focus on high-risk groups. Studies on unplanned pregnancy risk primarily emphasize contraceptive use, neglecting other factors. Assessing risk requires considering multiple factors, including the "unmet need for family planning" indicator, which monitors conditions like being sexually active without contraception or a desire to delay future children. However, this indicator is mainly studied among married or partnered women and less among adolescents.

      Studies examining the risk of unplanned pregnancy among young people typically focus on contraceptive use but often overlook these other conditions. It is assumed that young people are fertile and do not intend to get pregnant, without considering the desires and intentions of emerging adults (18-24 years old). Additionally, some adolescents may temporarily abstain from sex or only engage in same-sex relationships, eliminating the risk of pregnancy. Comprehensive measures of contraceptive use should include a range of methods, including intrauterine devices (IUDs), as their usage is increasing among women and girls in Europe. Contraceptive compliance, especially with short-acting contraceptives, should also be considered, as some users do not consistently use them.

      In the digital age, sexual behaviors are not limited to offline interactions. Online sexual risk behavior typically refers to sexting (sending and receiving sexual images and messages) or seeking sexual partners online through dating applications. While these behaviors are not inherently risky, they can have negative emotional outcomes. Sexting, for instance, can lead to invasion of privacy, embarrassment, and negative emotional effects if private images are shared without consent. Meeting sexual partners online has been associated with risks such as non-consensual sex or increased STI transmission.

      This paper analyzes data

      .....read more
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      Articlesummary with The Steps of Sexuality: A Developmental, Emotion-focused, Child-centered Model of Sexual Development and Sexuality Education from Birth to Adulthood by Cacciatore a.o. - 2019

      Articlesummary with The Steps of Sexuality: A Developmental, Emotion-focused, Child-centered Model of Sexual Development and Sexuality Education from Birth to Adulthood by Cacciatore a.o. - 2019

      Sexual development is often oversimplified as a journey from a first kiss to the first sexual intercourse during adolescence. However, this perspective fails to acknowledge that sexual development is a lifelong process that extends beyond measurable heterosexual activities. It is important to recognize that individuals are sexual beings throughout their lives, and children and adolescents continually develop in this aspect, just as they do in other areas.

      To understand sexual development in childhood and adolescence as a personal and individual maturation process, we need a more comprehensive and child-centered approach. This is necessary both in sexuality education tailored to different developmental stages and in providing a gradual understanding of the process for parents and educators.


      What is sexuality?

      The World Health Organization (WHO) defines sexuality and sexual health in broad terms, encompassing various dimensions such as gender identities, sexual orientation, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. It is essential to adopt positive and wellbeing-focused perspectives when conceptualizing childhood sexuality and designing sexuality education programs. This approach ensures that children and adolescents receive information that promotes healthy self-esteem, respect, and understanding of their own sexual development.

      Sexuality manifests differently at different stages of development, and the needs of children and adolescents differ from those of adults. Sexual activities considered appropriate for adults can be harmful when engaged in by children, even if they are positive and beneficial for adults' wellbeing. Involvement in sexual acts with older individuals constitutes child sexual abuse, which is a severe issue in all societies. During adolescence, sexual development accelerates, with physical maturity occurring earlier than emotional readiness for reciprocal and responsible sexual encounters. Premature sexual experiences during childhood and adolescence have been associated with negative outcomes. However, as adolescence progresses, readiness and desire for intimate sexual experiences typically develop.

      Just like other aspects of development, sexual development follows age-specific steps that arise from a child's or adolescent's intrinsic needs, readiness, and intentions. Despite increasing research in this area, there is still limited knowledge among health professionals, educators, and parents regarding normal sexual development. To support and safeguard the sexual development of children and adolescents across different stages, it is crucial to have a clear and easily understandable model that outlines the steps of sexual development. This model would assist parents, teachers, and professionals in working with children and adolescents.

      Most existing sexuality education models primarily focus on late adolescence, emphasizing preventing unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. They often neglect younger individuals' emotional needs and provide little guidance for teaching young children safety skills against sexual abuse. It is essential to develop positive and health-focused models that cover the entire span of childhood and adolescence, promoting self-understanding, respect for one's own developmental stage and needs, and pride in one's own

      .....read more
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      Articlesummary with Do Hormones Influence Women's Sex? Sexual Activity over the Menstrual Cycle by Caruso a.o. - 2014

      Articlesummary with Do Hormones Influence Women's Sex? Sexual Activity over the Menstrual Cycle by Caruso a.o. - 2014


      What was studied for this article?

      Female mammals, such as many other animals, experience increased sexual activity during estrus. However, women do not exhibit a clear heat period and their sexual activity is not significantly influenced by the different phases of the menstrual cycle. Studies have found low correlations between sex hormones and subjective/objective measures of sexual arousal in women. Some research suggests that sexual desire may increase around the presumed ovulation phase or the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. However, hormonal influences on female sexuality are challenging to demonstrate due to various factors, including constant male sexual interest, contraceptive use, and methodological difficulties in assessing cycle phases. Other influences, including psychosocial factors, may play a significant role in female sexual experience.

      The study described in this article aimed to investigate the correlation between sexual behavior and hormonal status in women with ovulation. The study involved a group of heterosexual women who were invited to participate and met specific criteria, excluding pregnant or postpartum women, those taking hormone therapy or contraceptives, and those with certain medical conditions. The study aimed to understand the relationship between hormones and sexual behavior in women.

      How did the study go?

      The study began with a screening phase in which women with regular menstrual cycles and ovulation were included. Sonography was used to confirm ovulation by detecting the dominant follicle. Interviews were conducted to collect information on sexual history and exclude women with sexual dysfunction. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS) were used to assess sexual function and distress.

      In the study phase, participants were given diary cards to report their daily sexual activity throughout the menstrual cycle. Women were instructed to complete the diary cards daily, and on average, they returned 31.5 daily reports. Blood samples were taken at specific times during the menstrual cycle to measure hormone levels, including estradiol, progesterone, total testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin.

      Statistical analysis was performed to determine if there were changes in the frequency of sexual activity related to the phase of the menstrual cycle. The analysis included factors such as women with a partner vs. singles. The Bonferroni method was used for multiple comparisons. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to correlate sexual activity with hormone levels. Multivariate analysis was conducted to examine if factors like age, body mass index, age of menarche, parity, or smoking influenced sexual activity.

      The statistical analysis was performed using specific software packages for biostatistics and regression analysis.

      .....read more
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      Articlesummary with Testosterone and Sexual Desire in Healthy Women and Men by Van Anders - 2012

      Articlesummary with Testosterone and Sexual Desire in Healthy Women and Men by Van Anders - 2012

      The article describes a research study investigating the link between testosterone and sexual desire in healthy adults. Previous studies have shown mixed evidence regarding this link, with some suggesting that men have higher sexual desire due to higher levels of testosterone. However, these studies have mostly been conducted with clinical populations or animal subjects. The current study aims to examine the role of psychosocial factors in understanding the association between testosterone and desire in healthy individuals. The study focuses on three psychosocial domains: sexual behavior, gender/sex attitudes, and sexual self-esteem. By integrating physiological and psychosocial variables, the study aims to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between testosterone and sexual desire.


      How did the experiment go?

      This experiment, part of the Partnering, Physiology, and Health (PPH) study, aimed to investigate the psychosocial context of hormone-intimacy links. The study included 196 participants (91 women and 105 men) recruited from the psychology participant pool and the community. The participants' age ranged from 18 to 35 years, with the majority being students or having some college or advanced training.

      Several questionnaires were used to collect data on various aspects, including sexual desire, stress, mood, self-esteem, loneliness, exercise, and sexual body image. The Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI) was used to assess participants' sexual desire, measuring both solitary and dyadic desire. Other questionnaires measured well-being, perceived stress, positive and negative affect, self-esteem, loneliness, exercise frequency, and sexual body image.

      Saliva samples were collected from participants to measure hormone levels. Testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) levels were assessed using radioimmunoassay. Salivary hormone assays were chosen due to their ease of collection, lack of biohazards, and correlation with serum hormone levels.

      The statistical analyses included correlations, partial correlations, and linear regression. The researchers examined the relationships between T and sexual desire, and the potential influences, mediators, and moderators using the collected variables. Confounding variables such as test date, sampling time, BMI, nicotine use, and age were considered in the analyses. Separate analyses were conducted for men and women, except when examining gender differences specifically.

      What are the results of this experiment?

      Here are the key findings of this study:

      1. The testosterone values for women (M = 13.36 pg/mL, SD = 6.25) and men (M = 83.36 pg/mL, SD = 30.79) were within expected ranges. Men had significantly higher testosterone levels than women.
      2. Testosterone showed diurnal variation, with later times of testing resulting in lower testosterone levels.
      3. Solitary and dyadic sexual desires were positively correlated for both men and women, indicating some level of association between the two, but they did not measure the same
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      Articlesummary with Doing Gender in Sex and Sex Research? by Vanwesenbeeck - 2009

      Articlesummary with Doing Gender in Sex and Sex Research? by Vanwesenbeeck - 2009

      Gender and sexuality are interconnected and extensively studied topics in sexology. Research on gender and homosexuality shows that there is a complex and variable relationship between gender and sexual orientation. The study of intersex, gender dysphoria, and transgenderism also demonstrates the complexity of gender. However, most studies focus on gender in relation to men and women in heterosexuality, as it is a fundamental and interdependent aspect. The term "heterogender" has been proposed to describe the asymmetrical stratification of the sexes within patriarchal heterosexuality. However, studying gender in heterosexuality presents challenges in sex research. In this essay, the author identifies and discusses difficulties in treating gender in sex research, presenting evidence and a process-oriented perspective on gendered sexual behavior. The aim is to highlight the importance of gender in understanding sexuality, view gender and sexuality as ongoing social processes, and emphasize the need for a nuanced and balanced approach to studying gender in sex research.


      What is the connection between gender and sex?

      One difficulty in sex research is the confusion between the terms "gender" and "sex." Originally, "gender" was used to describe cultural femininity and masculinity, while "sex" referred to biological males and females. However, over time, "gender" has been increasingly used to simply refer to concrete men and women. This shift has led to the misuse of the term, often with a biological determinist perspective. The meaning of "gender" continues to be a subject of debate among feminists. Additionally, there has been a shift from modern to postmodern approaches, emphasizing performativity and diversity. In this essay, the terms "sex" and "gender" are used interchangeably to address the overall division between male and female, while applying each term where specifically relevant.

      What is the connection between gender and sexuality?

      A second difficulty in understanding gender and sexuality is the prevalent view that gender determines sexuality, despite arguments for a mutually influential relationship. Throughout history, gender has been prioritized over sexuality, with a few exceptions. However, scholars now assert that gender and sexuality are inherently interdependent and mutually informing. The relationship between gender and heterosexuality is particularly strong and reciprocal. This relationship is characterized as dynamic, fluid, and patterned, with a metaphor of a shoreline, where gender represents the land (greater fixity) and sexuality represents the sea (greater fluidity). This metaphor captures the ever-changing interconnectedness, influenced by biological, institutional, and ideological factors. However, the metaphor may not fully account

      .....read more
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      Article Summary of Evolutionary Psychology and Feminism - Buss & Schmitt - 2011

      Article Summary of Evolutionary Psychology and Feminism - Buss & Schmitt - 2011

      This article explains evolutionary psychology and some important findings in the field.


      What is evolutionary psychology?

      Evolutionary psychology is a multidisciplinary field that combines insights from evolutionary theory, biology, cognitive psychology, anthropology, economics, computer science, and paleoarchaeology. It is based on several core premises:

      • Manifest behavior is influenced by underlying psychological mechanisms in the brain, along with external and internal inputs.
      • Evolution by selection is the primary process responsible for creating complex organic mechanisms (adaptations).
      • Evolved psychological mechanisms are specialized to solve adaptive problems that humans have faced throughout evolution.
      • Selection has designed these psychological mechanisms to be influenced by specific classes of information from the environment.
      • Human psychology consists of a multitude of specialized evolved mechanisms that interact with each other and with external variables to produce adaptive behavior.

      These tenets imply that genetic determinism alone cannot explain human behavior, as environmental input is necessary at each stage of development. It is essential to distinguish between underlying psychological mechanisms and manifest behavior. Additionally, social and cultural factors are integral to understanding human behavior. Evolutionary psychology emphasizes the flexibility of human behavior, enabled by a variety of context-dependent evolved psychological adaptations.

      What is the relationship between feminism and evolutionary psychology?

      The relationship between feminism and evolutionary psychology has historically been complex. Feminist scholars initially showed skepticism towards evolutionary approaches, fearing they could be used to justify gender inequalities. However, some feminist scientists who identified as both feminists and evolutionists fostered a rapprochement between the two fields. More recently, there has been a growing recognition that evolutionary psychology can complement feminist scholarship and contribute to a better understanding of gender dynamics and power relations.

      What is Sexual Strategies Theory?

      Sexual Strategies Theory proposes that humans have diverse mating strategies, influenced by evolutionary logic and contextual variables. It predicts gender differences in mating behavior, such as men's greater desire for sexual variety. Empirical studies support this hypothesis, showing men's higher interest in short-term mating and more sex partners. Women also benefit from short-term mating, but sex differences in expressed desires for sexual variety exist. Despite skepticism, empirical evidence continues to support these differences. It's important to distinguish between evolved desires and actual behavior, as factors like status influence mating success.

      How did beauty standards evolve?

      Beauty standards' evolution is debated between social scientists and evolutionary psychologists. Social scientists argue that beauty is a social construct, while evolutionary psychologists

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      Article Summary of How does sexual minority stigma “get under the skin”? A psychological mediation framework - Hatzenbuehler - 2009

      Article Summary of How does sexual minority stigma “get under the skin”? A psychological mediation framework - Hatzenbuehler - 2009


      What areas has science focused on when it comes to mental health issues among sexual minorities?

      Three different literatures need to be mentioned that have focused on identifying risk factors that put sexual minorities at risk when it comes to mental health problems:

      • Psychiatric epidemiology
      • Social generation of stigma through stress
      • General psychological processes

      Why is it important to integrate these literatures?

      There is a need for a framework with psychological pathways that link stigma-related stressors to adverse mental health outcomes. This framework should take into account group-specific stressors as well as general psychological processes. Exclusive focus on any of these processes without considering their interrelationships hinders the development of effective theory of the determinants of mental health disparities among sexual minorities and prevention and intervention efforts.

      What are the three hypotheses proposed by the psychological mediation framework?

      The psychological mediation framework (PMF) is theoretically based on transactional definitions of stress, stating that both environmental and response components of stress are important in determining health outcomes. It proposes the following hypotheses:

      • Sexual minorities face increased exposure to stress due to stigma.
      • This stigma-related stress leads to increases (relative to heterosexuals) in general coping/emotion regulation, social/interpersonal, and cognitive processes that cause risk for psychopathology.
      • These processes, in turn, mediate the relationship between stigma-related stress and psychopathology.

      What is minority stress theory?

      Minority stress theory (MST) describes how societal stressors contribute to differences in mental health in LGBT populations. The minority stress theory suggests that difficult social situations cause stress

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      Articlesummary with Interventions to reduce blatant and subtle sexual orientation- and gender identity prejudice (SOGIP): Current knowledge and future directions by Cramwinckel a.o. - 2018

      Articlesummary with Interventions to reduce blatant and subtle sexual orientation- and gender identity prejudice (SOGIP): Current knowledge and future directions by Cramwinckel a.o. - 2018


      What is SOGIP?

      SOGIP is an abbreviation for Sexual Orientation- and Gender Identity Prejudice. It is defined as a negative attitude towards certain behaviors, individuals or groups based on - or related to - their (perceived) sexual orientation, (perceived) gender identity, gender role or gender expression.

      What are determinants of SOGIP?

      There are several determinants of SOGIP, but some of them, like age or religious affiliation, may be difficult to change and to target with interventions. Discomfort with variations in gender roles and traditional beliefs about gender roles explain much of SOGIP. The acceptance of gender nonconformity mediates the link between contact with sexual minorities and prejudices about sexual orientation. More contact with sexual minorities leads to greater acceptance of gender nonconformity, which in turn leads to less prejudice about sexual orientation. Threats to one's gender identity also directly predict prejudice about sexual orientation.

      What are some demographic characteristics of SOGIP?

      • Men show higher levels of SOGIP than women.
      • Being older versus younger predicts higher levels of SOGIP.
      • Lower education levels versus higher levels predicts SOGIP.
      • Lower levels of income/social status predicts SOGIP.
      • Being married versus single predicts SOGIP.
      • Religious people have higher levels of SOGIP (Muslims more than Catholics and Protestants, and they more than people who adhere to Eastern religions or non-religious people.

      How has SOGIP changed from blatant to subtle?

      SOGIP can be expressed in different forms and this has implications for interventions and their effectiveness. Prejudice has changed from more blatant to more subtle forms, because social norms and

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      Article Summary of Intersectionality 101 - Gopaldas - 2013

      Article Summary of Intersectionality 101 - Gopaldas - 2013

      Intersectionality is a concept that explores how different social identities, such as race, class, and gender, interact and shape individuals' experiences of privilege and oppression. It originated from black feminist thought as a way to understand the unique challenges faced by black women. Over time, the concept has evolved to encompass various social identity structures beyond race, class, and gender.

      Contemporary meanings of intersectionality encompass multiple dimensions of social relations and subject formations, and it has become an interdisciplinary field of study that integrates different disciplines. Intersectionality can also be seen as an epistemological perspective or research paradigm.

      Intersectional research on marketplace diversity differs from traditional diversity research in several ways. Traditional research often treats social identity structures as independent variables, while intersectional research recognizes their interdependence. Methodologically, intersectional research emphasizes the inclusion of multiple perspectives through ethnographic approaches and historical analysis. The goals of intersectional research go beyond including overlooked groups and aim to identify the historical and structural mechanisms of social domination, proposing plans for social change.

      Understanding intersectionality has implications for diversity research, marketing, and advocacy. It encourages a more comprehensive examination of social advantages and disadvantages experienced by individuals across various social identity structures. It also highlights the need to consider historical and structural forces that contribute to inequalities. Intersectionality can inform strategies for promoting diversity, equity, and inclusion in various domains, such as academia, business, and social activism.

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      Article Summary of Intersectionality: From theory to practice - Al-Faham et al. - 2019

      Article Summary of Intersectionality: From theory to practice - Al-Faham et al. - 2019


      What is intersectionality?

      Intersectionality refers to how a person´s various social and political identities combine (intersect) to create different modes of discrimination and privilege. It involves many factors of advantage and disadvantage, such as gender, sex, ethnicity, sexuality, religion and physical appearance.

      How was the term intersectionality introduced?

      The term intersectionality was first introduced by civil rights advocate and scholar Kimberlé Crenshaw in 1989 in a paper called ¨Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex¨. In that paper she drew on a series of legal cases and argued that people who were discriminated against on the basis of more than one characteristic often fell through the cracks of the legal system. She focused on how intersections along axes of identity reinforced marginalization and illustrated how laws and policies designed without accounting for intersectionality may produce undesirable outcomes.

      What is Collins´ matrix of domination?

      Patricia Collins is the sociologist who introduced the term matrix of domination. She uses this term to explain that issues of oppression that deal with different social classifications are all interconnected. There are many different ways in which someone might experience domination and they may face many different challenges in which one obstacle (e.g. race) may overlap with other sociological features. Oppression is shaped through the interaction of intersectional micro processes and interlocking macro processes.

      How can you distinguish between intersectionality and the matrix of domination?

      Intersectionality refers to particular forms of intersecting oppressions (e.g. intersections of race and gender). These oppressions work together in producing injustice. The matrix of domination refers to how these intersecting oppressions are organized. Regardless of the intersections, there are structural, hegemonic, interpersonal and disciplinary domains of power that reappear across different forms of oppression.

      How were scholars divided with regards to the applicability of intersectionality to a broader context?

      A first group of scholars opted out of using intersectionality altogether, stating that privileged patriarchy and racism over heterosexism and other forms of inequality. A second group argued that intersectionality should be defined as a normative and empirical research paradigm

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      Articlesummary with Romantic Relationships and Sexuality in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: The Role of Parents, Peers, and Partners by Van de Bongardt a.o. - 2015

      Articlesummary with Romantic Relationships and Sexuality in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: The Role of Parents, Peers, and Partners by Van de Bongardt a.o. - 2015

      The development of healthy romantic relationships and sexuality is a lifelong process that begins with romantic feelings and sexual experimentation early in life. During adolescence and young adulthood, individuals explore these aspects of their lives, and social contexts and interpersonal relationships with parents, peers, and partners play a significant role in shaping their experiences. This special issue aims to advance our understanding of how romantic relationships and sexuality develop in the context of these social domains.


      How have perspectives in the field changed?

      In the past, romantic relationships and sexual activities of youth were often seen as risky behaviors associated with negative outcomes. However, there has been a shift in perspective towards viewing these experiences as normative tasks in adolescent development. Research has shown that early romantic relationships and sexual activity are prevalent among teenagers in Western countries, indicating their expected behavior patterns.

      This change in perspective has led to a focus on understanding how most adolescents develop their romantic relationships and sexuality in a normative way, rather than solely identifying factors that prevent involvement in such relationships. This shift has also allowed for the identification of truly risky versus normative developmental trajectories, leading to a better understanding of young people's educational and healthcare needs.

      Furthermore, the ecological perspective highlights the importance of socio-contextual factors in shaping adolescent behaviors and relationships. Research has demonstrated the significant role of parents, peers, and partners in influencing romantic relationships and sexual development. Attachment theory suggests that adolescents' relationships with their parents influence their later relationships with romantic partners. Friendships also play a crucial role in developing skills and expectations for romantic relationships. Additionally, characteristics of romantic partners themselves, such as personality traits and self-esteem, contribute to the quality of adolescents' romantic relationships.

      In terms of sexual development, a positive and supportive relationship with parents has been found to be protective and associated with delayed initiation of sexual behavior and safer sexual practices. Peers' sexual norms, especially descriptive norms, have been shown to influence adolescents' own sexual activity. The role of romantic partners in adolescents' sexual behaviors is still an area that requires further research.

      Overall, this shift towards a normative perspective and recognition of the importance of social contexts has expanded our understanding of adolescent romantic relationships and sexual development, and has implications for effective education programs and healthcare interventions.

      What are the strengths of previous studies in the field?

      Previous studies have several strengths that contribute to the literature on romantic and sexual

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      Article Summary of Sexualizing media use and self objectification - Karsay et al. - 2017

      Article Summary of Sexualizing media use and self objectification - Karsay et al. - 2017


      What is sexualization?

      In terms of today´s mainstream media, sexualization refers to the type of presentation, for example by television, videogames and social networking sites, that is marked by an emphasis on sexual appearance, physical beauty, and sexual appeal to others. Sexualizing media is criticized for reinforcing gender stereotypes, increasing acceptance of rape myths and increasing body dissatisfaction. It is yet to be determined what the role is of sexualizing media use in the development of self-objectification.

      What is objectification theory?

      The objectification theory states that the experience and observation of sexual objectification acculturates men and women to internalize an objectified view of the self. With this view a third-person perspective of the body is adopted which is manifested by a chronic attention to one's own physical appearance, which is defined as self-objectification. 

      What is self-objectification?

      Self-objectification is the psychological mechanism that translates experiences of sexualization at the cultural level to psychological and behavioral health and well-being at the individual level. It is conceptualized as a learned trait, but it can also be elicited momentarily and can lead to a state of self-objectification. Self-objectification has cognitive components (e.g. valuing appearance over competence) and behavioral components (e.g. engaging in chronic body monitoring).

      What is sexual objectification?

      Sexual objectification is defined as the practice of viewing, using and/or valuing a person as an object whose worth is based primarily on his or her physical and sexual attractiveness. Sexually objectifying experiences are not always sexual in nature. They also include pressure from society to create, present, maintain and continuously improve an attractive appearance. Sexual objectification can thus occur in many different ways. It can range from depictions of an ideal body type, to evaluations of one´s own body, to sexual harassment.

      What is sexualization according to the APA?

      According to the APA, sexualization occurs whenever:

      • a person's value is determined primarily
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      Articlesummary with Comprehensive Sexuality Education by Vanwesenbeeck - 2020

      Articlesummary with Comprehensive Sexuality Education by Vanwesenbeeck - 2020


      Why is sexuality education important for young people?

      Sexuality is a central aspect of being human. It encompasses sexual behaviors, sexual orientations, eroticism, gender identities and reproduction. Adolescents want to learn about sex and have a right to accurate information. It is crucial to their development of identity, morality and the capacity of intimacy. Parents and peers play a socializing role, but they are not always the best at meeting the needs of the young people when it comes to sexuality education. That is why states and schools need to take this responsibility.

      What is comprehensive sexuality education?

      UNESCO defines comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) as a curriculum-based process of teaching and learning about the cognitive, emotional, physical and social aspects of sexuality. Its goals are to provide young people with knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that empower them to realize their health, well-being and dignity, develop respectful social and sexual relationships, and ensure the protection of their rights. A distinction can be made between conventional health-based CSE and rights-based empowerment CSE.

      What is conventional health-based CSE?

      Conventional health-based CSE provides curriculum-based, scientifically appropriate information on reproductive and sexual physiology and contraceptive and protective methods. Its main goal is to prevent sexual risks and other negative outcomes, such as sexually transmitted infections, HIV infections, and unplanned pregnancies. It promotes all available strategies to sexual prevention, including abstinence, safe sexual practices and the use of condoms.

      What theory underpins conventional CSE?

      Conventional CSE is theoretically driven by behavior change theory. It emphasizes social norms and values, attitudes, relationships and social skills as determinants of sexual health behavior.

      What is rights-based empowerment CSE?

      Empowerment CSE is about advancing young people´s knowledge, attitudes, and skills supportive of making informed sexual choices and of building safe and respectful relationships. It includes awareness of cultural, ideological, political and religious contexts and of the ways these contexts affect people´s sexual choices, behaviors, and relationships. It promotes sex positive values, such as mutual respect, human sexual rights, and gender equality.

      What are the

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      Articlesummary with Only sluts love sexting: youth, sexual norms and non-consensual sharing of digital sexual images by Naezer & Van Oosterhout - 2021

      Articlesummary with Only sluts love sexting: youth, sexual norms and non-consensual sharing of digital sexual images by Naezer & Van Oosterhout - 2021


      What is sexting?

      Sexting refers to making and sending sexually explicit messages, especially images, via the Internet. Sexting can contribute to different dimensions of young people's sexual development and can be considered normal sexual behavior that is an expression of sexual agency, exploration and expression. However, there is also the risk of other people distributing the message without the maker´s consent. This non-consensual sharing is a form of sexual violence or abuse.

      What is problematic about interventions aimed at preventing non-consensual sharing of digital sexual images?

      The interventions are often focused on (potential) victims who are discouraged from making and sharing such images. Besides that these interventions try to limit young people's sexual freedom, they also encourage victim-blaming in case of incidents by placing responsibility for the distribution of the images with the victim instead of the perpetrator. It also makes those who are actually responsible invisible.

      What forms of non-consensual image sharing are there?

      Image-based abuse can take many different forms:

      • Non-consensually produced images: people may be forced or talked into making and/or sending sexual images of themselves, sexual images may be made without a person knowing (like upskirting or child pornography) and images may be deepfaked or photoshopped.
      • Consensually produced images: images may be stolen (for example through hacking) or shared without a person's consent.
      • Sextortion: when non-consensually or consensually produced images are used to blackmail that person.
      • People may receive unsolicited and unwanted images.

      In which ways are there double standards for boys and girls in modern society with regards to sexting?

      Firstly, girls are encouraged to be ´sexy´ while at the same time they are discouraged from and punished for performing sexiness (through moralizing and pathologising). They are made responsible for preventing the abuse of their images. Boys however can gain respect

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      Article Summary of The storyscapes of teenage pregnancy. On morality, embodiment, and narrative agency - Cense & Ganzevoort - 2019

      Article Summary of The storyscapes of teenage pregnancy. On morality, embodiment, and narrative agency - Cense & Ganzevoort - 2019


      What is this article about?

      Pregnant teenagers tell different stories about their experience. Their stories are influenced by normative discourses. How the meaning of teenage pregnancy is constructed depends on stigma and social norms, but the embodiment of pregnancy also plays a significant role.

      Teenage pregnancies are associated with poverty and considered a risk for sexual active girls. American, European and Australian public health polices follow the neoliberal ideology, which sees an individual as rational and being capable of self-care and autonomy. Youngsters are encouraged to have sexual control and act responsible in order to prevent unplanned pregnancies. However, the (individual) choice regarding reproduction clashes with the (societal) imperative to avoid teenage pregnancy. An unplanned pregnancy is considered the result of behaving careless. The neoliberal ideology reinforces the belief that a teenage pregnancy is shameful. The negative portrayal of teenage pregnancies by sexual health policies worsens the stigmatization. Not every pregnant teenager has a negative experience. Scholars call for a re-examination of the normative discourses regarding teenage pregnancy and being a mother at an early age.

      The aim of this study is to contribute to this re-examination by investigating how young Dutch women negotiate the meaning of abortion, motherhood and teenage pregnancy in the current normative landscape. Strategic negotiations refer to the process of understanding, reproducing and reworking existing narratives on teenage pregnancy. The question is: How do girls situate their families, themselves and their choices of reproduction in a broader social context? This involves recognizing how policies, relationships and social norms influence how individuals see themselves. When telling their stories girls develop and express narrative agency, which refers to the capacity to weave out (fragments of) narratives to make sense of herself as an individual.

      Motherhood can heavily influence a young woman’s construction of responsibility and morality, and it gives them new life directions and a new identity. Instead of social exclusion, teenage pregnancies can also lead to social inclusion. However, teenage motherhood can also have negative consequences regarding education, poverty and stigmatization.

      When it comes to abortion, The Netherlands is considered a liberal country. Although abortion is easily accessed, safe and legal, many people and media question the morality of it. Nearly half of the Dutch young women who underwent an abortion felt ashamed and even more kept it a secret. Women perceive abortion stigma from their social environment, which refers to a negative attribute ascribed to

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      Article Summary of A motivation model of sex addiction – Relevance to the controversy over the concept - Toates - 2022

      Article Summary of A motivation model of sex addiction – Relevance to the controversy over the concept - Toates - 2022


      What is this article about?

      Sex addiction was first formulated in the 1980’s and is often compared with drug addiction. While the notion is widely accepted, not everyone is fully convinced by it.

      This study presents a model of sexual addiction, which involves a combination of models based upon the dual-control organisation of behavior and brain, and the incentive motivation theory. Two criteria suggest addiction:

      • There is suffering and a desire to be free of the excessive behavior.
      • There is a specific set of causal processes and learning mechanism involved.

      Sex addiction includes both addiction to pornography and sexual behavio

      What characterizes the process underlying motivation?

      Two dichotomies are important. First, the control of behavior has a dual structure: goal based (goal-driven) and stimulus based (compulsive). Second, there are corresponding inhibition processes that are also based on a dual structure.

      When it comes to addiction, stimulus based control of behavior has two components:

      1. Kahneman’s concept of dual control is explained by an automatic and fast System 1 that can act unconsciously (stimulus based), and a goal-directed, slow and intentional System 2 that has conscious control (goal based). The distinction between these systems refers to the control thought and behavior, and therefore also applies to addiction. When experiences are repeated, behavior becomes more like a habit, for example the actions involved in getting access to and using drugs.
      2. The targets of behavior gain increased power to lure the addict, like a magnet. This aspect is characteristic of motivational processes, especially in addiction.

        What is incentive motivation?

        According to the incentive-motivation theory of Robinson and Berridge (1993), motivational triggers are:

        •  Certain incentives in the external world, like drugs and possible sexual partners.
        •  Cues linked to these incentives, for example the link between a PC keyboard and pornography.
        •  Internal representations of the incentives in memory.

        The incentive motivation model forms the basis of this article, as it is relevant to behavioral addictions, including sex.

        The activation of a number of brain regions as a reaction to cues (seeing drugs or pornographic images) is known as cue reactivity. Addicts have a tendency to show an approach bias towards the target of the addiction. In case of sex and drugs, the stimulus-based control can act unconsciously until the on-going approach

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        Article Summary of Women’s sexual desire. Challenging narratives of ‘dysfunction’ - Graham et al. - 2017

        Article Summary of Women’s sexual desire. Challenging narratives of ‘dysfunction’ - Graham et al. - 2017

        The altered classification of sexual dysfunction of women in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and the approval by the FDA of the first drug to treat low sexual desire in females have led to a debate among researchers and clinicians.


        How was female sexual dysfunction originally classified?

        Psychosexual dysfunction was first mentioned in the DSM published in 1980. Previous versions did not cover sexual disorders. One of the included psychosexual dysfunctions was inhibited sexual desire, which was based on the Human Sexual Response Cycle (HSRC): “disturbances in sexual desire and in the physiological changes that characterize the sexual response cycle”. In the following edition published in 1994, the word inhibited was no longer used. A feature of the HSRC model is the universal range of phases of sexual response that are basically the same in men and women (excitement, arousal, orgasm, resolution). The criterion for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder was also similar for both sexes.

        The DSM classification and the HSRC both received a lot of criticism in the last decades. One complaint concerns the absence of defined duration and severity criteria. According to the criteria, nearly half of the American females have a sexual dysfunction. More defined severity criteria resulted in a much lower rate.

        The classification of sexual disorders was heavily altered in the DSM edition published in 2013, especially regarding female sexual disorders. Defined severity and duration criteria to all sexual dysfunctions were presented, the requirement that the symptoms cause “clinically significant distress” was added and the HSRC phases were dropped. Disorders regarding arousal and desire (FSAD and HSDD) were deleted an a new disorder was introduced: Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (FSIAD). The criteria for low sexual arousal/desire included behavioral, physical and subjective aspects. Females need to meet three of six criteria (polythetic approach), as not all women experience the same arousal/interest problems and express them in various ways. 

        What pharmaceutical treatments are available for low sexual desire in women?

        A lot of criticism is also targeted at the increased medicalization of sexuality. The pharmaceutical industry tried to create a female version of Viagra. The creation of a pharmaceutical market for women included the promotion of the notion that Female Sexual Dysfunction is a urgent public health concern that requires treatment.

        In 2004, trials of Viagra for females with arousal disorders were stopped due to men’s and women’s  fundamentally distinct relationship between desire and arousal. The focus was then

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        Article Summary of A bio-ecological theory of sexual harassment of girls: research synthesis and proposed model- Brown et al. - 2020

        Article Summary of A bio-ecological theory of sexual harassment of girls: research synthesis and proposed model- Brown et al. - 2020


        What is this article about?

        Many American teenage girls have experienced sexual harassment and nearly a quarter of female college students have been the victim of sexual assault. Despite the negative and long-term consequences of these experiences on their emotional, physical and mental health, perpetrating sexual assault and harassment is usually seen as normative. Very few perpetrators receive punishment. Cases are rarely tried and merely 5% of them result in a conviction. In spite of much media attention on this topic (MeToo) and the Weinstein-trial, there is still significant cultural acceptance of sexual assault and harassment of women.

        The tolerance and prevalence of sexual assault and harassment against girls by boys is the expected developmental result of the present cultural context in which boys and girls are socialized. Previous research on this matter concentrated on adolescence and the what, who and where question. Hardly any research was done on how the normative school, family and cultural contexts – in which young kids develop - support acceptance and perpetration of sexual harassment. Policymakers and researcher need to understand how the social contexts of kids might facilitate later sexual harassment.  

        In order to review relevant literature and propose factors, the bio-ecological theoretical framework of Bronfenbrenner was used. The proximal contexts of peers, schools and parents and the distal contexts of media content play a crucial role in the prevalence of sexual harassment. The interactions and engagement of children with these contexts shape their development. As kids enter adolescence, these interactions have resulted into behaviors that accept the perpetration of assault and harassment against women.

        What is the theoretical framework?

        According to Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecological systems theory, children interact with their distal and proximal context. These contexts show overlap and interact with one another. The characteristics of an individual child are shaped by their proximal environments (the microsystem): their peers, school and family. Kids are directly influenced by the interactions with their friends, siblings, parents, class mates etc. Kids are also heavily influenced by their (indirect) distal environments (the exosystem), like mass media. These contexts together form a broader culture (the macrosystem). Lastly, the theory argues that children’s developmental and biological processes moderate and inform the impact of the distal and proximal context (the chronosystem).

        Sexual harassment: unwelcome sexual behavior, either physical, nonverbal or verbal, that takes place electronically or in person. Examples are touching, joking, gesturing and

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        Articlesummary with The complexities of sexual consent among college students: a conceptual and empirical review by Muehlenhard a.o. - 2016

        Articlesummary with The complexities of sexual consent among college students: a conceptual and empirical review by Muehlenhard a.o. - 2016

        Media coverage regarding sexual assault among college students puts pressure on universities to improve their sexual consent policies. The headlines express the controversy that surrounds sexual assault in college. American and Canadian universities are pressured to investigate and address the complaints of students. Both the accused and complaining student usually acknowledge the occurrence of sexual contact, but disagree about it being consensual. While most awareness and educational campaigns emphasize how important getting sexual consent is, they do not clarify what is considered consent.


        What is the definition of sexual assault?

        The terms rape, sexual assault and battery have no globally accepted definitions. Legal definitions and that of researchers vary. In general, they refer to sexual acts that are obtained by (the threat of) force or without consent.

        • Rape refers to sexual penetration that is obtained by (the threat of) force or the victim being incapacitated.
        • Sexual battery is usually defined as unwanted sexual touching.
        • Sexual assault includes unwanted sexual touching and sexual penetration.

        In this article, sexual assault refers to sexual touching or penetration without consent.

        Why is sexual assault among college students receiving more attention now?

        While it has been documented in the literature since the 1950s, addressing sexual assault became a priority in the US during the Obama era. New guidelines regarding the prevention of and response to sexual assault by universities and colleges were introduced in 2011. They declared that sexual violence is a form of prohibited sex discrimination and that schools are obligated by law to investigate and address complaints of sexual violence between students. Students who are not satisfied with the response, can file complaints against the school. Some students demand more severe sanctions against people that were found guilty. Some sanctioned students sued their university and mothers joined forces to raise awareness of the unfair treatment of accused students.

        A number of states, including New York and California, signed legislation that obligate universities to adopt policies requiring ‘affirmative consent’. Every person involved in a sexual activity needs to have the affirmative consent of the other(s). The absence of resistance or

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        Article Summary of He is a stud, she is a slut! A meta-analysis on the continued existence of sexual double standards - Endendijk et al. - 2020

        Article Summary of He is a stud, she is a slut! A meta-analysis on the continued existence of sexual double standards - Endendijk et al. - 2020


        What is sexual double standards (SDS)?

        Men and women are usually held to distinct standards of appropriate (sexual) behavior. For example, men are socially punished for behaving passively or modestly and women for behaving dominantly or directly. Receiving backlash for breaching social standards can have a bad influence on society and individuals.

        Sexual double standards (SDS) refer to the different sexual behaviors that are valued for and expected of women and men. Traditionally, males are expected to be dominant, initiating sexual activity and sexually active. Females are expected to be passive, submissive and reactive. As men have more sexual freedom, they are often treated differently for the same sexual behaviors. Half of the girls have experienced slut-shaming, compared with one-fifth of the boys.

        There is an association between SDS and gender differences in sexual risk behavior (men: more partners, women: more reluctance to ask for or insist on using protection) and societal problems (gender inequality, sexism, homophobia).

        The research on the extent and continued existence of SDS is inconsistent, but given the negative consequences of SDS for both genders, it is important to investigate whether and to what degree they still exists. To provide answers, a meta-analysis was conducted.

        Theoretical framework: under what conditions are SDS present?

        Biosocial and evolutionary theory assume the existence of SDS and provide predictions regarding moderators of the strength of SDS, particularly with regard to historical change, cultural differences and the behavioral specificity of SDS. The female and male control theory draws on premises of biosocial and evolutionary theory. The gender-intensification hypothesis is used to make predictions about age differences in SDS.

        Evolutionary theories provide rationales for the differences in the evaluations an expectations of women’s and men’s sexual behavior. Gender difference in parental investment are particularly relevant. Biologically, mothers invest more in their kids than fathers. Because of their lower parental investment, there is a lot of competition among men for females. As they are sexually assertive and dominant, it is likely they will be successful. Having sex often and with several partners is more beneficial for men, as it offers them more opportunities to pass their genes on. Women are more selective when it comes to choosing a partner. These evolutionary processes influence how we perceive the sexual behavior of ourselves and others.

        Biosocial theory assumes that the different behavorial norms are the result of the societal division

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        Article Summary of Addressing Gender Socialization and Masculinity Norms Among Adolescent Boys: Policy and Programmatic Implications - Amin et al. - 2018

        Article Summary of Addressing Gender Socialization and Masculinity Norms Among Adolescent Boys: Policy and Programmatic Implications - Amin et al. - 2018


        What is this article about?

        Global health and development policies focus mostly on teenage girls, as gender inequalities make them more disadvantaged and vulnerable. However, there are convincing reasons to take a closer look at adolescent boys. Their transition from childhood to adolescence is associated with several health problems and risk factors that influence their health during their whole life (e.g. injuries, violence, suicide, aids, alcohol, drugs, tobacco). Males are also less likely to seek help than females, and their behaviors have a significant impact on the well-being and health of females.

        A frequently ignored contributing factor to the health behaviors of teenage boys is their gender socialization to adopt stereotypical or unequal attitudes related to masculinity. Early adolescence is a critical phase for the development of gender attitudes, especially because the start of puberty evokes and intensifies gender related expectations. A recent review on gender attitudes of young teenagers demonstrates that girls and boys experience significant different sources and pressures of gender socialization.

        This article focuses on the types of masculinity norms and the key factors that shape the gender attitudes of boys. Certain interventions could address damaging masculinity norms.

        What masculinity norms are endorsed by young adolescents?

        Teenagers endorse masculinity norms linked to autonomy (e.g. providing, protecting, independency), psychical toughness (e.g. fighting, competing, high pain tolerance), heterosexual prowess (e.g. having sex with lots of girls, having control over girlfriends) and emotional stoicism (e.g. avoiding acting girly or showing vulnerability, not reaching out to others for help). Teenage boys are also more likely to endorse unequal norms related to gender. There are three possible explanations:

        1. Norms that privilege males are considered ‘normal’, so boys are not tempted to challenge them.
        2. Teenage boys experience greater relative power and freedom than girls, so they might not feel the need to challenge their privileges.
        3. Boys that want to act more feminine or strive for equity face more social obstacles (stigmatization, labeling, ridicule) than girls.

        What factors influence the gender attitudes of boys?

        Various factors contribute to the gender socialization of teenagers, but peers and parents play a key role. The contribution of the parents involves direct and indirect communication, like different expectations, rules and sanctions for sons and daughters. During the transition into adolescence,

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        Youth and Sexuality: Samenvattingen, uittreksels, aantekeningen en oefenvragen - UU
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