Aantekeningen hoorcollege 3 - Cultural Diversity - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

C O U R S E   3   -   2 1   F E B R U A R Y   2 0 2 3

Multicultural society

Acculturation

  • It’s an ongoing process throughout your life
  • It’s a two-way process » how the environment is receiving you and how you adapt to the environment
  • It’s a process of social, psychosocial and cultural change from the encounter between two (or more) cultures. People adopt, acquire and adjust to a new cultural environment as a result of moving into a new culture.
  • Het is een proces dat blijft voortbestaan

Acculturation model at individual level

four different acculturation strategies

  • Integration: people maintain aspects of the heritage culture, while also adopting aspects of the host society/host society culture.
  • Assimilation: fully adopting the host society and losing maintenance of heritage culture.
  • Segregation: maintaining the heritage culture without having a lot of interaction with the host society » focus on own culture.
  • Marginalization: people lose touch with heritage culture but also don’t have (much) contact with the host society

Acculturation model at societal level

  • Multiculturality: A society witch people are integrated. Meaning that people are allowed to maintain aspects of their heritage culture, while also being actively part of the host society.
  • Melting pot: Type of society where people lose (parts of)their heritage culture, or are not in touch with their heritage culture, but mainly adopt the common culture in a country (= assimilation)
  • Segregation: reflects a society with very different groups, different communities, but with very little interaction. Some groups maintain their heritage culture
  • Exclusion: groups that are not part of anything. Individuals or small groups that aren’t part of their own cultural community or they are not able to establish their own cultural community. They’re also not part of the host culture/society.

Terminology and confusion about it

  • The meaning of integration is different than we are used to.
  • Segmented assimilation/selective acculturation: adopting some parts of the host society, but not all

Interdisciplinary framework: culture and adaption

Afbeelding met diagram

Automatisch gegenereerde beschrijving

 

 

 

 

 

 

Global context

Context in which migration takes place

  • Push and pull (factors that make a country (un)attractive) factors
  • Cultural globalization and socialization include new, online and social media
  • Transnational ideologies: beliefs and values systems » xenophobia, islamophobia, long-distance nationalism

Macrosystem

  • National and immigrant policies

    • Regulate influx of immigrants and refugees
    • Educational opportunities (equity)
  • Attitudes towards migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers
    • Processes and procedures towards citizenship
    • Access to welfare programs
    • Access to secure (job) protection

Microsystem

  • Neighborhood

    • Communities & networks
    • Ethnic enclaves: infrastructure or businesses » “a home away from home”
  • School (Lecture 6)
  • Family (Lecture 7)
  • Segregation in housing, poverty and crime, and schooling

Multicultural society, what do we think of that?

Voorbeelden van onderzoeken, niet verder uitgewerkt.

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Hoorcollege aantekeningen - Cultural Diversity - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

Aantekeningen hoorcollege 1 - Cultural Diversity - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

Aantekeningen hoorcollege 1 - Cultural Diversity - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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C O U R S E   1   -   7   F E B R U A R Y   2 0 2 3

Cultural Diversity: policy, care and education in multicultural societies

 

General information

Learning goals:

  • Role of cultural diversity
    • Different theoretical models
    • Childrearing, parenting, child development & education
    • Importance for policy and practice
  • Conduct qualitative study

Goal: develop cultural sensitivity » we moeten voorzichtig zijn in hoe we over andere(n)/culturele groepen praten

Cultural diversity wordt vanuit verschillende perspectieven belicht

»  The Developmental Niche is main theory in this course

Different theories on culture:

  • Ecological theory of Bronfenbrenner
  • Sociocultural theory
  • Individualism vs. rationalism
  • Developmental niche

Superdiversity in The Netherlands

  • Ongeveer 26% van onze bevolking is van origine Nederlands
  • Bijna 90% van de populatiegroei komt door internationale migratie
  • Amsterdam, Rotterdam en Den Haag hebben de meeste culturele diversiteit, namelijk over 50%

Deze diversiteit komt door:

  • Verhuizingen van buiten de EU (bijv. Turkije en Marokko)
  • Toevoeging nieuwe EU-landen, waaruit mensen emigreren
  • Toename instroom vluchtelingen aantal (bijv. uit Afghanistan en Syrië)

Superdiversity also relates to:

  • Rural or urban neighborhood » this provides children different opportunities for education and development
  • Religious or non-religious
  • Differences in family composition
    • Single parent, nuclear (father, mother and a few children), extended family. Single parent and extended family (e.g. grandparents live in the same home) are very common. The nuclear family is no longer the ‘family standard’.  
    • Heterosexual vs. homosexual

All these different types of diversity provide children with differences in context (settings) and the view on their parents and their beliefs on what is        important in upbringing and childrearing

»  We can no longer say there is a majority of one cultural group

The weirdest people in the world

WEIRD-sample: Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic

  • Most behavioral science is based on this sampleThe participants in research are usually from western, high educated (rich) families and industrialized and democratic countries
  • Can we generalize findings based on this research to the general population? Is this sample representative for the general population?

What is culture?

(and how can we define it?)

Vélez-Agosto

  • Bronfenbrenner ecological perspective:
    • Individual and cultural processes as separate entities
    • Culture as
.....read more
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Aantekeningen hoorcollege 2 - Cultural Diversity - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

Aantekeningen hoorcollege 2 - Cultural Diversity - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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C O U R S E   2   -   1 4   F E B R U A R Y   2 0 2 3

Cultural identity development

 

Erikson’s psycho-social theory of development

Erikson’s theory is foundational in the identity development of children. The theory follows a social and cognitive development of individuals. These 8 stages focus on collectedness, relatedness and the impact of our interactions in these processes 

  • The lifespan is divided into 8 stages of development, from birth to death.
  • Each stage has a crisis/tension that needs to be resolved and that resolution affects the next stage (the crisis is ‘necessary’ for each stage)
  • How the challenge of each stage is solved impacts personality and identity development.
  • Erikson: the first to recognize the role of social context in identity development. He introduced the term ‘identity crisis’

 

In de volgende 3 fases vind de ontwikkeling van identiteit plaats

Identification in childhood (ages 6-11)

  • Starts when the children recognize themselves as a separate being from their parents (individuals from their parents)
  • The processes of identification in this stage are primarily related to  copying (identyfing with) traits/characteristics of their parents or other significant others.
  • This stage ends when the children experience a desire for uniqueness and greater differentiation from their parents, that’s expressed with a search of differentiation
  • Kinderen hebben al een ego gevormd in deze fase

Identify formation during adolescence (ages 12-24)

In this stage there are a variety of different (intense) changes

  • The stage is characterized by a search for a self-categorization/understanding and existential purpose in the world/role in society.
  • Very important for the development of a sense of well-being, sense of belonging (to a place, group or to one’s body), and for a sense of direction in life.
  • Identity crisis in this stage: sense of loss and confusion; the importance of having outlets of expression.    If you don’t express your identity you can develop an identity crisis
  • You have more questions about who you are, what your purpose in life and your role in society is. Erikson conceptualized that search of purpose in life in terms of ‘occupational purpose.’

Identity development in adulthood (ages 25 and beyond)

  • This stage is defined by a shift of focus from identity concerns towards intimacy issues and bonds with others » this does not mean that the concerns about identity disappear after young adulthood
  • New life events and experiences can still have impact on identity development (e.g. migration, having children, coming out). If you are a parent you start asking yourself which norms, values etc. you want to reflect on your
.....read more
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Aantekeningen hoorcollege 3 - Cultural Diversity - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

Aantekeningen hoorcollege 3 - Cultural Diversity - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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C O U R S E   3   -   2 1   F E B R U A R Y   2 0 2 3

Multicultural society

Acculturation

  • It’s an ongoing process throughout your life
  • It’s a two-way process » how the environment is receiving you and how you adapt to the environment
  • It’s a process of social, psychosocial and cultural change from the encounter between two (or more) cultures. People adopt, acquire and adjust to a new cultural environment as a result of moving into a new culture.
  • Het is een proces dat blijft voortbestaan

Acculturation model at individual level

four different acculturation strategies

  • Integration: people maintain aspects of the heritage culture, while also adopting aspects of the host society/host society culture.
  • Assimilation: fully adopting the host society and losing maintenance of heritage culture.
  • Segregation: maintaining the heritage culture without having a lot of interaction with the host society » focus on own culture.
  • Marginalization: people lose touch with heritage culture but also don’t have (much) contact with the host society

Acculturation model at societal level

  • Multiculturality: A society witch people are integrated. Meaning that people are allowed to maintain aspects of their heritage culture, while also being actively part of the host society.
  • Melting pot: Type of society where people lose (parts of)their heritage culture, or are not in touch with their heritage culture, but mainly adopt the common culture in a country (= assimilation)
  • Segregation: reflects a society with very different groups, different communities, but with very little interaction. Some groups maintain their heritage culture
  • Exclusion: groups that are not part of anything. Individuals or small groups that aren’t part of their own cultural community or they are not able to establish their own cultural community. They’re also not part of the host culture/society.

Terminology and confusion about it

  • The meaning of integration is different than we are used to.
  • Segmented assimilation/selective acculturation: adopting some parts of the host society, but not all

Interdisciplinary framework: culture and adaption

Afbeelding met diagram

Automatisch gegenereerde beschrijving

 

 

 

 

 

 

Global context

Context in which migration takes place

  • Push and pull (factors that make a country (un)attractive) factors
  • Cultural globalization and socialization include new, online and social media
  • Transnational ideologies: beliefs and values systems » xenophobia, islamophobia, long-distance nationalism

Macrosystem

  • National and immigrant policies
    • Regulate influx of immigrants and refugees
    • Educational opportunities (equity)
  • Attitudes towards
.....read more
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Aantekeningen hoorcollege 4 - Cultural Diversity - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

Aantekeningen hoorcollege 4 - Cultural Diversity - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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C O U R S E   4   -   2 8   F E B R U A R Y   2 0 2 3

Unequal childhoods – concerted cultivation or poverty?

Big picture (1) – the growing ‘skills gap’

  • Social inequality in labor market opportunities, income, health and life expectancy are increasingly dependent on the skills people acquire in the course of their lives.
    • It is about cognitive academic (school) skills, but also about broader non-cognitive skills in the social-emotional domain such as self-esteem, self-control, ability to collaborate, motivation, creativity, and cultural and social capital (deze begrippen worden later verder uitgelegd).
  • Family income (not race, ethnicity, social class as such) is an increasingly important factor explaining inequalities in educational and social opportunities.
    • The higher income families spend an increasing part of their (already higher) income on high quality childcare and after school care, private schools, non-formal shadow education, and informal social, cultural and creative socialization, and sports » all to the benefits of their children
  • Income differences by diploma (1964-2012)
    • Despite increased educational spending and access to education, the income gap by diploma has widened by a factor 2.
    • Even in egalitarian countries like Denmark a multiplication of the income gap has occurred (Heckman, 2020)
    • This has to do with the idea of skills acquisition

Big picture (2) – privatization of education

  • Next to the public education system, there is a growing market of non-formal ‘shadow education’ (e.g. exam training) and informal education in social and cultural skills (music, creativity, sports, science).
  • Non-formal schadow education in The Netherlands: from 26m € per year in 1996 to 284m € in 2018.
  • Shadow education is a widespread phenomenon. There is a strong increase in money that parents spend on extra education for their children.
  • High private costs on shadow education are the major cause of the growing ‘skills gap’

Social and educational inequalities

  • Educational inequalities and, later in life, unequal social opportunities emerge already early and point to unequal childhoods.
  • 60% to 80% of the education gap between children from low and high SES family backgrounds at the end of primary school is already present at age 6, so before formal schooling starts (Skopek et al., 2021).
  • Primary education cannot (greatly) reduce the early gaps and gaps tend to become bigger after transition to secondary education

2 studies om beeld te geven van ‘unequal childhood’:

Early gesturing and vocabulary growth (Rowe & Golding-Meadow, 1999)

  • Even before real language learning starts, there is already a difference between high and low socioeconomic families in how they
.....read more
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Aantekeningen hoorcollege 5 - Cultural Diversity - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

Aantekeningen hoorcollege 5 - Cultural Diversity - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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C O U R S E   5   -   7   M A R C H   2 0 2 3

Inclusion and intercultural competence

Two types of inclusion

  • At the door (acceptability) » who can enter, who can participate?
    • Equal access for everyone
    • Exclusion can be deliberate » it can be a choice. Someone (e.g. the state) can decide for you whether you can participate or not
    • Exclusion as an implicit consequence (e.g. buildings with only stairs or paid access to extracurricular activities)
  • Behind the door (belongingness)
    • Two main elements:
      • Related to diversity (positive attitude towards diversity)
      • Related to well-being (sense of belongingness)
    • Pastori et al. (2019) defines it as a four-step process
      • Inclusion as acknowledging diversity » acknowledging differences
      • Inclusion as valuing diversity » positive attitude towards diversity, viewing it as a good thing
      • Inclusion as accepting diversity » when we acknowledge and value differences, we can accept people for who they are
      • Inclusion as well-being 

What is important to children?

  • Language use
  • Safe spaces for learning
  • Competent professionals

Language use

  • Also called: mother tongue, L1 (first language)
  • In the Netherlands, 1 of 5 children grow up in multilingual households with Dutch as L2
  • Predominant focus on majority language in Europe. Teachers find it very important, they have strong monolingual beliefs (they value the majority language the most)
    • Multilingual beliefs and practices cause shared understanding among teachers (at a local and national level)
    • Multilingual beliefs are stronger for professionals who work with younger children » the professionals who work in e.g. daycare are more positive towards the children’s home language than professionals working with older children
    • Focus on the majority language has led to a devaluation of the home language (teachers say the home language is not as important as the majority language)
      • Use of home language is actively banned in (pre)schools
      • Differences  in appreciation related to cultural-ethnic background and social class
    • Language has a cognitive and social-emotional function
      • Easier to express emotions in L1
      • Language is part of your (social) identity
      • When there are positive multilingual practices and beliefs, it improves children’s well-being
    • Why is inclusion of home languages not common practice in schools?
      • Misconceptions about multilingualism and language development. Teachers believe there are different ‘boxes’ for different languages (parallel monolingualism) and home language portrayed as a barrier to success (deficiency perspective
      • Professionals
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Aantekeningen hoorcollege 6 - Cultural Diversity - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

Aantekeningen hoorcollege 6 - Cultural Diversity - Universiteit Utrecht (2022/2023)

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C O U R S E   6   -   1 4   M A R C H   2 0 2 3

Early childhood education and care & school

3 different aspects:

  • Disparities and education gap
  • Role of ECEC and school
  • Classroom experiences and interventions

Disparities – education gap

  • Income stronger predictor of school success than migration background
  • Explanatory factors » various forms of capital
    • Economic capital: financial and material resources
    • Human capital: parental education level; cognitive stimulation
    • Social capital: resources available in network
    • Cultural capital: knowledge, skills and familiarity with dominant culture
  • Upward mobility (i.e. having a lot of access to different sources of capital can also allow you to go beyond what your parents or grandparents have accomplished. You are moving up the social ladder) OR cultural reproduction (i.e. because of the types of capital that you were exposed to, you stay within the same community and basically reproduce the upbringing that you had yourself)?
  • To close the gap you should tackle the source

Role of ECEC – primary education

  • Effects of ECEC: ECEC attendance can partly close the education gap, however several issues stand out:
    • Magnitude (=omvang) of effects dependent on:
      • Quality of the provided care
      • Duration or intensity
    • Accessibility of ECEC » negative social selection tendencies and reduced access to high quality ECEC for disadvantaged families
    • Effects strongest for cognitive and language development and weaker for social emotional development
  • Effects of ECEC in the Netherlands (Dutch study):
    • Short term effects (2-4 years, before enrollment in primary school):
      • More guided and pretend play » better vocabulary skill development
      • Use of an education program (VVE = vroege voorschoolse educatie) » better vocabulary
      • Higher educational quality (= quality of interactions) » better attention skills
    • Long term effects (final grade primary school):
      • Higher intensity from 2 years » better reading skills, less externalizing problem behavior but early high intensity possible risk factor for externalizing problem behavior
      • More literacy activities (= lees- en schrijfactiviteiten) in preschool » better reading skills

Classroom experiences and interventions

Quality universal definition? (Rosenthal, 2003)

Individualism

Collectivism/relationism

.....read more
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