Summary of chapter 4 of Social Psychology.

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      Summaries per chapter with the 9th edition of Social Psychology by Hogg & Vaughan - Bundle

      What is social psychology? - Chapter 1

      What is social psychology? - Chapter 1

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter serves as an introduction to the field of social psychology. The chapter covers several key topics of social psychology and explains how social psychology has developed and how it can be used. The following topics will be discussed in this chapter:

      1. What social psychology is. The chapter starts by defining social psychology and discussing how it is distinct from other fields of psychology. It explains that social psychology is concerned with how people think about, influence, and relate to each other.

      2. The scope of social psychology. The chapter discusses the wide range of topics that social psychologists study, including social influence, social cognition, social perception, social identity, intergroup relations, and many others.

      3. Applications of social psychology. The chapter discusses some of the practical applications of social psychology, such as how social psychology research can be used to promote health behaviors, reduce prejudice and discrimination, and improve interpersonal relationships.

      4. Theoretical perspectives in social psychology. The chapter introduces some of the key theoretical perspectives that social psychologists use to understand human behavior, including social identity theory, social exchange theory, and evolutionary psychology.

      5. The methods of social psychology. The chapter covers the methods that social psychologists use to conduct research, including experiments, surveys, and field studies. It also discusses some of the ethical issues that arise in social psychological research.

      6. The historical context of social psychology The chapter provides an overview of the history of social psychology, starting with the early social psychology experiments conducted by Norman Triplett and Max Ringelmann in the late 1800s and early 1900s. It also covers the emergence of social psychology as a distinct field of study in the mid-20th century.

      What is social psychology as a field of psychology?

      Social psychology is a field of psychology that examines how individuals perceive, interact and affect each other. Social psychologists study a variety of topics, such as how individuals influence each other, how they process and interpret social information, how they perceive themselves in relation to social groups, and how they relate to others who belong to different social groups. Social psychology is distinct from other fields of psychology because it concentrates on the social factors that shape behavior, distinguishing it from other fields of psychology that focus more on individual-level factors.

      Compared to other fields of psychology, social psychology places greater emphasis on the role of social factors in shaping behavior. For example, clinical psychology focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness, whereas social psychology focuses on how social factors influence mental processes and behavior. Developmental psychology focuses on how individuals change and develop over the course of their lives, whereas social psychology focuses on how social experiences shape development. Cognitive psychology focuses on mental processes such as perception, attention, and memory, whereas social psychology focuses on how these processes are influenced by social factors.

      Social psychology research has practical applications in a wide range of areas, including health, business, law, more
      What are social cognition and social thinking? - Chapter 2

      What are social cognition and social thinking? - Chapter 2

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter is about social cognition and social thinking, including the processes involved, the factors that influence them, and their consequences for social behaviour. The chapter begins with an overview of the concept of social cognition and its relevance to social psychology. It explains that social cognition refers to the mental processes that people use to make sense of social situations and other people's behaviour.

      Then the chapter goes on to discuss how people make judgments and form impressions of others based on the information available to them. This is called social perception.  The various factors that influence social perception, including physical appearance, nonverbal behaviour, and stereotypes, are described. The chapter covers attribution theory, which is the study of how people explain the causes of behaviour. It discusses the two types of attributions: dispositional (attributing behaviour to a person's personality or character) and situational (attributing behaviour to external factors). Social schemas are explained as mental frameworks that people use to organize and interpret information about social situations and other people. It is also explained how schemas can influence social cognition, perception, and memory. The chapter also explains heuristics, which are mental shortcuts that people use to simplify social information processing. It describes several common heuristics, including the availability heuristic, the representativeness heuristic, and the anchoring and adjustment heuristic. It is discussed how much of social cognition occurs automatically and finally, it is discussed how people’s motivations and goals can influence their social cognition and perception.


      What is social cognition?

      Social cognition refers to the study of how individuals process, retain, and utilize information related to social situations and other individuals. This field of study involves research to cognitive processes such as attention, perception, memory, and judgment. Early social psychological research focused primarily on behaviour and attitudes, with relatively little attention paid to cognitive processes. However, in the 1960s and 1970s, a new wave of research emerged that focused on cognitive processes and how they shape social behaviour.

      This new approach was influenced by developments in cognitive psychology, which emphasized the importance of mental processes such as perception, attention, memory, and decision-making. Social psychologists began to explore how these cognitive processes were involved in social perception, social judgment, and social interaction. They found that social cognition can be influenced by factors such as motivation, emotion, and social context.

      One key area of research that emerged was the study of social schemas, which are mental frameworks that people use to organize and interpret social information. Researchers also began to explore how people use heuristics, or mental shortcuts, to make quick judgments about other people and social situations.

      Another important development for social psychology was that of attribution theory. Attribution theory is a fundamental concept in social psychology that refers to how people explain the causes of others' behaviour or events. According to attribution theory, people make judgments about whether behaviour is caused by dispositional factors or situational factors. Dispositional factors are in a person’s personality more
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      How do attribution and social explanation work? - Chapter 3

      How do attribution and social explanation work? - Chapter 3

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter is about social cognition, which refers to the mental processes involved in perceiving, remembering, thinking about, and interpreting social information. This chapter covers several topics related to how people make sense of the social world. It discusses perception and interpretation of social stimuli, such as faces, emotions, and nonverbal cues, and social categorization, which is the process of grouping people into categories based on common characteristics, such as age, gender, race, or nationality. It also discusses stereotyping and prejudice, which are negative attitudes and beliefs about members of certain social groups. And the chapter explains how attribution theory can be used to explain how people explain behaviour of groups. The chapter also explains how interpersonal and intergroup relations work.


      How do we seek the causes of behaviour?

      People are naturally curious about the causes of other people's behaviour because understanding why someone behaves in a certain way can help us predict their future behaviour and even control it. Attributions are the explanations we give for why people behave the way they do, and they can be divided into two categories: internal (dispositional) and external (situational) causes.

      Fritz Heider's attribution theory proposes that people make attributions based on three factors: consistency, distinctiveness, and consensus. Consistency refers to the extent to which a person's behaviour is consistent over time, while distinctiveness refers to the extent to which a person's behaviour is unique to a particular situation. Finally, consensus refers to the extent to which other people behave similarly in the same situation. By considering these factors, people can make more accurate attributions about the causes of someone's behaviour. For example, if someone consistently exhibits a certain behaviour only in one specific situation where others also exhibit the same behaviour, an external attribution may be more appropriate. However, if the behaviour is inconsistent and distinct to that person, an internal attribution may be more appropriate.


      How do people attribute causality?

      Harold Kelley's covariation model proposes that people make attributions by considering the presence or absence of covariation between a particular behaviour and the context in which it occurs. In other words, people observe whether the behaviour consistently occurs in the same context or situation, and whether it is unique to that context or situation. This helps people determine whether the cause of the behaviour is internal or external to the person exhibiting the behaviour.

      In addition to using covariation to make attributions, people may also rely on schemas and stereotypes to make attributions. However, these can sometimes lead to errors and biases because they may not accurately reflect the individual differences and nuances of behaviour.

      Attributional biases are errors or distortions in how people make attributions. In chapter 2, the fundamental attribution error, the actor-observer bias and the self-serving bias have been explained. These biases can lead to misunderstandings and conflicts in social interactions. Efforts to reduce biases can include increasing the awareness of them and providing feedback on them.


      How has attribution theory more
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      How are self and identity influenced? - Chapter 4

      How are self and identity influenced? - Chapter 4

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter is about the self and identity, which is a fundamental aspect of social psychology. The chapter explores the different aspects of the self, including the personal self, relational self, and collective self, and how they are influenced by historical and cultural contexts.

      The chapter discusses the processes of self-awareness and self-knowledge, which are important for understanding how individuals develop and maintain their self-concepts. Also, the chapter discusses cultural differences in self and identity, highlighting how individualistic and collectivistic cultures view the self and identity differently.

      The chapter also explains the idea of multiple selves and multiple identities, which are context-dependent and can be influenced by social factors such as culture and group membership.

      Social identity theory is explained in the chapter, which sheds light on how individuals derive their self-concept from group membership and how this can lead to intergroup behaviour such as prejudice and discrimination. The chapter also touches upon the concepts of self-motives and self-esteem, which are important for understanding how individuals maintain a positive self-image.

      Lastly, the chapter explores the processes of self-presentation and impression management, which individuals use to intentionally shape how others perceive them.


      What is the self?

      The concept of the self refers to an individual's awareness of themselves as distinct from others and their surroundings. It is central to social psychology because it influences how individuals perceive and interact with the world around them.

      The personal self is the aspect of the self that is concerned with an individual's unique characteristics, such as personality traits, abilities, and beliefs.

      The relational self is the aspect of the self that is defined by the relationships an individual has with others. This aspect of the self is shaped by social interactions and can vary depending on the nature of the relationships an individual has with others.

      Finally, the collective self refers to an individual's identification with larger social groups, such as their nationality, ethnicity, or religion. This aspect of the self is shaped by an individual's membership in particular social groups and their experiences within those groups.

      The different aspects of the self interact with each other and influence an individual's behaviour and attitudes in social contexts.


      How has the idea of the self developed over time?

      The concept of the self has evolved over time and has been shaped by various historical and cultural contexts. Different perspectives of the self have been proposed throughout history. The essentialist view of the self suggests that it is an innate and unchanging essence, while the existentialist view emphasizes the self as a constantly evolving and changing entity. In contrast, the social constructivist view of the self emphasizes that the self is a product of social and cultural influences and is shaped by social norms, roles, and expectations.

      Historically, the essentialist perspective of the self has been prominent in many cultures and religions, such as the ancient Greek notion of the soul and the Christian concept of the immortal soul. more
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      What are attitudes? - Chapter 5

      What are attitudes? - Chapter 5

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter provides an overview of attitudes and their role in social psychology, with a particular focus on measurement, attitude-behavior consistency, and the social and cultural context of attitudes. Attitudes and their functions are explained, including the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of attitudes. The chapter als gives a discussion of the historical development of attitudes research, including the early work of Allport and the emergence of the cognitive perspective.

      Then it covers the relationship between attitudes and behavior, including the classic attitude-behavior debate and the factors that can influence this relationship, such as the strength of the attitude and the situational context.

      The chapter also explains attitude measurement and discusses various methods for assessing attitudes, such as self-report measures, implicit measures, and physiological measures.

      This chapter also explores the social and cultural contexts that shape attitudes, such as social norms, group identity, and intergroup relations. The chapter also discusses the role of attitudes in prejudice, discrimination, and social inequality.


      What are attitudes?

      How did attitude research develop?

      Early attitudes research was largely focused on understanding the structure and measurement of attitudes. In the 1930s and 1940s, Gordon Allport and his colleagues developed the idea of functional autonomy, which suggested that attitudes could develop independent of the original motivations that led to their formation. Allport also proposed the concept of attitude strength, which refers to the degree to which an attitude is firmly held and influences behavior.

      In the 1950s and 1960s, there was a shift towards understanding the cognitive processes involved in attitude formation and change. This period saw the emergence of the cognitive perspective, which posited that attitudes were not simply a result of direct experience or socialization, but were also influenced by cognitive processes such as evaluation and belief formation. Researchers began to explore the role of cognitions such as beliefs, values, and emotions in shaping attitudes, and the processes by which these cognitions were acquired and changed.

      One influential theory that emerged from this period was the cognitive dissonance theory, which proposed that people experience psychological discomfort when their attitudes and behavior are inconsistent, leading to efforts to reduce the dissonance through attitude change or rationalization. The self-perception theory, which posits that people infer their attitudes from their behavior and the context in which it occurs, also emerged during this period.

      The 1970s and 1980s saw the development of the elaboration likelihood model, which proposed that attitude change could occur through either a central route, in which people carefully consider the arguments and evidence presented, or a peripheral route, in which people are swayed by superficial cues such as the attractiveness of the communicator. This model emphasized the importance of both cognitive and social factors in shaping attitudes.

      Later on in this chapter, you’ll learn more about these theories and models, as they are still significant in social psychology today.

      What are attitudes composed of?

      Attitudes are evaluative responses that individuals hold toward people, objects, or events. They more
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      How do persuasion and attitude work? - Chapter 6

      How do persuasion and attitude work? - Chapter 6

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter is about persuasion and attitude change. It covers various topics related to how people are persuaded by others and how their attitudes and beliefs can be changed.

      The chapter begins by discussing the processes of persuasion, including the source of the message, the message itself, and the audience that is being persuaded. It then examines the effects of different persuasive strategies, such as the use of fear appeals and the role of emotions in persuasion. The chapter also explores the factors that influence the effectiveness of persuasive messages, including the characteristics of the audience, the context in which the message is presented, and the use of persuasive tactics such as social influence and cognitive dissonance. Finally, the chapter discusses the resistance to persuasion strategies: reactance, forewarning, inoculation, attitude bolstering, and self-affirmation.


      What is the effect of arguments and persuasion on behaviour?

      Attitudes, as can be seen in chapter 5, are evaluations of people, objects, and ideas that influence our behaviour and decision-making. Attitudes can be changed through persuasion, which is an attempt to change someone's attitude through communication. Arguments are messages that are used for persuasion.

      Attitudes play an important role in behaviour. Thus, persuasion can influence behaviour, but the effectiveness of this influence depends on factors such as the strength of arguments, the source and message, and individual and contextual factors. Fear appeals and the use of emotionans in arguments are important persuasive strategies. Fear appeals are a common persuasive strategy that induce in individuals in order to change their behaviour or attitudes. Fear appeals can be effective when they are well-designed, such as by providing specific recommendations for how to avoid the fear-inducing situation. However, fear appeals can also backfire if they are too strong or if individuals feel that they are not able to control the situation. Emotional appeals can also be used to create positive or negative associations with an object or behaviour. Positive emotions, such as humor or joy, can be used to create positive associations with the message, while negative emotions, such as anger or disgust, can be used to create negative associations. Emotions can be used to enhance message processing and retention. However, emotional appeals are also risky, because individuals may try to resist persuasion if they feel they are being manipulated.

      How does persuasive communication work?

      Persuasive communication is attempting to change someone's attitude through communication. According to the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM), the extent to which people elaborate on a message determines how much they are persuaded by it. Elaboration refers to the extent to which people think about and analyze the arguments presented in a message. In the central route of persuasion, people carefully scrutinize the message and its arguments. They are more likely to be persuaded when the message is strong and convincing. In contrast, in the peripheral route, people are influenced by cues such as the speaker's credibility or attractiveness. They are more likely to be persuaded when more
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      How does social influence work? - Chapter 7

      How does social influence work? - Chapter 7

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter is about the different ways in which social influence can affect people's beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours. It is a crucial chapter in understanding the dynamics of social interactions and the power that others can have over us. Social influence can be good, but it can also be dangerous, so it is an important topic for social psychology.

      The chapter begins by introducing the concept of social influence and discussing its importance in social psychology. It then goes on to describe three main types of social influence: conformity, compliance, and obedience. Then it explains the different factors that can influence whether people conform to the opinions or behaviours of others, including the size and unanimity of the group, the nature of the task or decision, and individual differences in personality and culture. It also discusses the strategies that people use to get others to comply with their requests, including foot-in-the-door, door-in-the-face, and lowball techniques.

      This chapter also explores the factors that can lead people to obey authority figures, even when doing so goes against their personal beliefs or moral principles. This section includes a discussion of the famous Milgram obedience studies and their implications. And it explores the factors that influence conformity, going against your own beliefs or principles for the bigger group. In this section, the studies by Asch are discussed. The chapter also discusses minority influence, which can be seen as the opposite of conformity because this is about the smaller group influencing the beliefs of the bigger group.


      What types of social influence are there?

      Social influence is a important concept in social psychology that refers to how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviour are affected by the presence or perception of others. It can be real or imagined. For example, a person may be influenced by the presence of others in a group or the mere belief that others are watching or evaluating their behaviour.

      There are three main types of social influence:

      • Conformity occurs when people adjust their thoughts, feelings, or behaviour to align with the norms of a group. This can happen even when the norms go against an individual's personal beliefs or values.

      • Compliance involves changing one's behaviour in response to a direct request from someone else. The request may come from a person in a position of authority or a peer. Compliance can be based on social norms, expectations, or reciprocity.

      • Obedience involves changing one's behaviour in response to a direct order from an authority figure. Obedience can be influenced by factors such as the legitimacy and proximity of the authority figure, the presence of others who are also obeying, and the personal characteristics of the person being asked to obey.


      How does obedience to authority work?

      Obedience is a type of social influence where individuals follow the orders or directives of an authority figure, even if they may disagree with them or if more
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      How do people interact with each other in groups? - Chapter 8

      How do people interact with each other in groups? - Chapter 8

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter is about social groups. A group is a collection of people who interact with each other, share common goals, and have a sense of unity or belonging.

      Groups can be formal or informal. You can think of organizations or friendgroups. Groups can vary in size, from dyads (groups of two people) to large organizations. Groups can be characterized by their norms or shared expectations for behaviour, and by the roles or expected behaviours for individuals within the group.

      This chapter discusses the various ways in which individuals can be influenced by others in social groups, by social norms, group cohesiveness and group socialization. The chapter covers conformity, compliance, and obedience. It lastly explains group structures and why people join groups.


      What are group effects on individual behaviour?

      Groups have an impact on individual behaviour. These are some of the most important group effects on individual performance:

      • Social facilitation is the tendency for people to perform better on simple tasks when in the presence of others, but worse on complex tasks. The idea is that the presence of others can create arousal or anxiety, which can enhance performance on tasks that are well-practiced or familiar, like simple tasks, but hinder performance on tasks that are less familiar or more complex. This effect has been observed in a range of settings, from sports to academic testing.

      • Social loafing is the tendency for people to exert less effort when working in a group than when working alone. The idea is that when people are part of a group, they may feel that their individual efforts don't matter as much and may thus be less motivated to work hard. This effect is more likely to occur when people feel that their individual contributions are not easily identifiable or when they feel that others in the group are not putting in much effort either.

      • Deindividuation occurs when people lose their sense of individual identity and become more susceptible to the norms of the group. This can happen in situations where people feel anonymous, where there is a sense of shared identity among group members, or where there is a lack of clear social norms or rules. This can happen when someone is for example in uniform (anonymity), at a sporting event (shared identity) or on an online platform (lack of clear social norms). In such situations, people may feel less accountable for their actions and more likely to conform to the group's behaviour or values. This can sometimes lead to behaviours that individuals might not engage in otherwise, such as vandalism or aggression.


      What is group cohesiveness?

      Group cohesiveness refers to the degree to which group members are attracted to each other and share a sense of unity. Cohesive groups tend to be more tightly knit, with members feeling a stronger sense of belonging and attachment to the group. This can lead to several positive more
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      What is the role of leadership for social psychology? - Chapter 9

      What is the role of leadership for social psychology? - Chapter 9

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter focuses on how leadership influences group decision-making, and how group processes can be affected by various factors, such as conformity pressures, polarization, and groupthink. The chapter also discusses different leadership styles, such as authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire, and how they affect group members' attitudes and behaviours. Additionally, the chapter covers situational factors that influence leadership effectiveness and decision-making, including the characteristics of the group members and the nature of the task. Finally, the chapter discusses the role of juries in the criminal justice system, and how group dynamics and decision-making processes can influence jury verdicts. Overall, this chapter explores the complex interaction between leadership, group dynamics, and decision-making processes in various contexts.


      What does leadership entail?

      Leadership is the process of influencing others to achieve a common goal or vision. Effective leadership can make a significant difference in the success or failure of a group or organization. Leadership effectiveness depends on various factors, including the leader's traits, behaviours, situational factors, and followers' characteristics.

      Trait theories of leadership suggest that effective leaders possess certain innate personal qualities or traits, such as intelligence, charisma, and emotional stability. These theories assume that people are born with certain traits that make them natural leaders, and that leadership cannot be learned or developed. However, critics of trait theories argue that they oversimplify the complex nature of leadership and ignore the importance of situational factors.

      Behavioural theories of leadership focus on the leader's actions and behaviours rather than their innate traits. These theories suggest that effective leaders can learn and develop specific behaviours that will enable them to be successful. Some examples of effective leadership behaviours include setting clear goals, communicating effectively, and providing feedback and support to followers. Behavioural theories of leadership also emphasize the importance of situational factors and suggest that effective leadership requires flexibility and adaptability.

      Situational theories of leadership suggest that different leadership styles are more effective in different situations. For example, a directive leadership style may be more effective in a crisis situation where quick decisions need to be made, while a participative leadership style may be more effective in a situation where group members have a high level of expertise and are able to contribute to the decision-making process. Situational theories of leadership recognize that effective leadership requires an understanding of the situational factors that influence group dynamics and decision-making. Leaders must be able to adapt their leadership style to fit the needs of the group and the situation at hand.

      Effective leadership also requires building strong relationships with followers and creating a sense of shared vision and purpose. Leaders who can inspire and motivate their followers are more likely to be successful in achieving their goals. By building strong relationships with their followers, leaders can create a sense of trust and commitment that is essential for effective group functioning.



      What is the role of leaders on group decisions?

      In chapter 8, we have discussed group more
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      What are prejudice and discrimination? - Chapter 10

      What are prejudice and discrimination? - Chapter 10

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter is about prejudice and discrimination. The chapter discusses the nature and dimensions of prejudice, prejudiced attitudes and discriminatory behaviour, targets of prejudice and discrimination, and forms of discrimination. It also discusses stigma and other negative effects of prejudice and discrimination. The chapter also discusses theories that attempt to explain the origins and maintenance of prejudice and discrimination; the social identity theory, the realistic conflict theory, and the social learning theory.


      What is prejudice?

      Prejudice is defined as a negative attitude or affective response towards a group or its members, typically based on preconceived notions or stereotypes. This negative attitude can manifest in a variety of ways, including discriminatory behaviour towards individuals or groups, or the propagation of negative stereotypes about them.

      Prejudice can occur at different levels, including individual, institutional, and cultural levels. At the individual level, prejudice can be held by an individual towards a specific group or groups. At the institutional level, prejudice can be present in the policies and practices of organizations, such as hiring or housing discrimination. At the cultural level, prejudice can be part of the wider social norms and values of a society, which can perpetuate negative attitudes and behaviours towards certain groups.

      Prejudice can be explicit or implicit and can vary in its degree of intensity. Explicit prejudice is conscious and deliberate, while implicit prejudice is often unconscious and automatic. The intensity of prejudice can range from mild, such as holding negative stereotypes about a group, to more extreme forms such as hate speech or violence towards individuals based on their group membership.

      It is important to note that while prejudice can occur at an individual level, it can also be a result of larger social and cultural factors. Prejudice can arise due to socialization processes, such as learning stereotypes from family and peers, as well as from wider cultural influences, such as media representations of certain groups. Understanding the nature and extent of prejudice is important in order to address it and promote greater social harmony and inclusion.


      How do prejudiced attitudes lead to discriminatory behaviour?

      Prejudice can lead to discriminatory behaviour when negative attitudes and beliefs about a group are translated into actions or behaviours that disadvantage or harm members of that group. Discrimination can be direct, such as refusing to hire someone based on their membership in a particular group, or indirect, such as implementing policies that disproportionately affect members of a certain group.

      Discrimination can take place in different domains. Examples of discrimination include employment discrimination, which occurs when employers make decisions based on factors such as race, gender, or sexual orientation rather than on qualifications or job performance. Housing discrimination occurs when individuals or institutions deny housing opportunities or impose different terms and conditions based on a person's membership in a particular group. These are only some examples of discrimination, which can take place everywhere.

      Prejudice and discrimination can also be directed towards any group based on a more
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      How does intergroup behaviour work? - Chapter 11

      How does intergroup behaviour work? - Chapter 11

      What is this chapter about?

      The previous chapters, especially chapter 8, were about group behaviour. This chapter is about intergroup behaviour. The chapter discusses various theories and concepts related to intergroup behaviour, including realistic conflict theory, social identity theory, and contact theory. It also explores the role of social cognition in intergroup behaviour, as well as the influence of intergroup emotions and collective behaviour.

      The chapter highlights the negative consequences of intergroup conflict, such as prejudice, discrimination, and violence, and the importance of improving intergroup relations. Strategies for improving intergroup relations, including education, cross-group friendship, and intergroup contact programs, are also discussed.


      What is intergroup behaviour?

      Intergroup behaviour refers to the ways in which people behave toward members of other groups. This behaviour can be either positive or negative. Positive intergroup behaviour can include things like cooperation, where groups work together towards common goals. Negative intergroup behaviour, on the other hand, can involve prejudice, discrimination, and conflict between groups. Examples of negative intergroup behaviour include stereotyping, hostility, and even violence between groups. It's important to note that intergroup behaviour can be influenced by many factors, including social identity, social cognition, and intergroup emotions. Understanding these factors can help us better understand why certain intergroup behaviours occur and how they can be improved.


      How does relative deprivation lead to social unrest?

      Relative deprivation refers to the perception that one's own group is not receiving its fair share of resources or opportunities compared to other groups. This can occur even if the group's objective circumstances are actually improving or better than other group’s circumstances. When people experience relative deprivation, they may feel frustration, anger, or feelings of injustice, which can lead to social unrest, such as protests, strikes, or riots.

      For example, if a group feels that they are not getting fair wages or job opportunities compared to another group, they may engage in collective action to try to address the perceived injustice. In some cases, relative deprivation can lead to more extreme forms of intergroup conflict, such as terrorism or intergroup violence. Understanding the role of relative deprivation in intergroup behaviour is important for developing strategies to reduce conflict and promote positive intergroup relations.


      How can intergroup conflicts be explained?

      The realistic conflict theory and the social identity theory were also explained in chapter 10 to explain prejudice and discrimination. Discriminative behaviour can be seen as an intergroup conflict, but group conflicts are even broader, as they do not necessarily have to include prejudice. These theories can also explain the mechanism of intergroup conflicts as a whole.

      How does realistic conflict theory explain intergroup conflicts?

      Realistic conflict theory proposes that intergroup conflict arises when groups compete for limited resources. When groups perceive that there are limited resources available, they may feel threatened and compete with other groups for access to these resources. This competition can lead to negative intergroup behaviour, such as prejudice, discrimination, and violence. And again: more negative behaviour, will lead to more more
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      How does aggression work? - Chapter 12

      How does aggression work? - Chapter 12

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter is about aggression, which is defined as behaviour intended to harm another person who is motivated to avoid such treatment. The chapter covers definitions and measurements of aggression, theoretical perspectives on aggression, personal and situational variations in aggression, the general aggression model, the role of mass media on aggression, domestic and intimate partner violence, institutionalized aggression, and interventions for reducing aggression. The chapter emphasizes the importance of understanding the causes and consequences of aggression and highlights the need for effective strategies to reduce and prevent aggressive behaviour.


      What counts as aggression?

      Aggression is behaviour that is intended to harm another individual who does not wish to be harmed. So, aggression involves intentional behaviour aimed at causing harm, and the victim must not desire to experience this harm. If a dentist hurts someone, for example, he does not intend to harm that person so this is not aggression. Aggression is a common occurrence in our community and can have negative consequences, both for the aggressor and the victim. Aggression can take various forms, including verbal, physical, and relational aggression. Verbal aggression includes behaviours such as name-calling, yelling, and insulting others, while physical aggression refers to behaviours that involve physical harm, such as hitting, punching, or kicking. Relational aggression is a form of aggression that aims to damage social relationships, such as spreading rumors or excluding someone from a social group.

      However, defining and measuring aggression is not an easy task. There are different definitions of aggression, and what one person may consider as aggressive behaviour may not be perceived as such by another person. Additionally, aggression can be challenging to measure objectively, as it often occurs in private settings, making it difficult to observe and measure accurately.

      To overcome these challenges, researchers have developed various methods for measuring aggression, including self-report measures and behavioural observations. Self-report measures involve asking individuals to report their own aggressive behaviours or the aggressive behaviours they have experienced from others. Behavioural observations involve observing and recording actual aggressive behaviours in naturalistic or laboratory settings. Self-report measures are subject to social desirability bias and both victims and aggressors are often ashamed of aggression, which would stop them from reporting on it. Behavioural observations can provide more objective and reliable measures of aggression.


      How does social psychology understand aggression?

      What are the theoretical perspectives to explain aggression?

      There are theoretical perspectives that can explain aggression:

      • The biological perspective suggests that aggression is rooted in our evolutionary history and can be linked to genetic and physiological factors. For example, some studies have found that individuals with high levels of testosterone are more prone to aggressive behaviour. This perspective suggests that aggression is an innate behaviour that has evolved to help individuals survive and reproduce.

      • The social learning perspective, on the other hand, emphasizes the role of environmental and social factors in shaping aggressive behaviour. According to this perspective, aggression is learned through observation, more
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      How does helping behaviour work? Chapter 13

      How does helping behaviour work? Chapter 13

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter is about helping behaviour. It explores why and when people help others, and the various factors that influence helping behaviour, such as situational factors, individual differences, and social norms. The chapter discusses the bystander effect, which is the phenomenon in which individuals are less likely to help in an emergency situation when other people are present. It also covers the positive and negative effects of receiving help, as well as the positive and negative consequences of self-sacrifice, or the willingness to help at personal cost.


      Why do people help each other?

      Helping behaviour is a fundamental aspect of human social behaviour that can have numerous positive effects on both the helper and the recipient. In this way, it is the complete opposite of aggression, which was explained in chapter 12. When individuals engage in helping behaviour, they often experience increased feelings of empathy, connection, and satisfaction. For the recipient, help can provide much-needed relief, support, and reassurance. Helping behaviour can also strengthen social bonds, increase trust, and promote social cohesion.

      Social psychologists study the reasons and factors that influence helping behaviour in order to better understand why people help and what can be done to encourage helping behaviour in different situations. People may help others for a variety of reasons, including empathy, altruism, and self-interest.

      Empathy is the ability to understand and share the feelings of others. When people experience empathy for someone in need, they may be more likely to help them. This is because they are able to understand the distress that the person is experiencing and feel compelled to alleviate their suffering.

      Altruism is another motive for helping. Altruism refers to the desire to help others without any expectation of personal gain. People who are motivated by altruism may help others simply because they believe it is the right thing to do, or because they want to contribute to the well-being of others.

      Self-interest is also a common motive for helping. When people help others because they expect to receive some benefit in return, such as social approval or material rewards, they are acting out of self-interest. This may not necessarily be a negative thing, as it can encourage people to engage in helpful behaviours that benefit both themselves and others.

      One important factor that influences helping behaviour is the perceived cost of helping. People are more likely to help when the costs of helping are low, such as when the task is easy or when the benefits of helping are high. However, when the costs of helping are high, such as when the task is difficult or when there is a risk of harm, people are less likely to help.

      What is the bystander effect?

      Another important factor that influences helping behaviour is the presence of other people. The bystander effect is a well-documented phenomenon that occurs when individuals are less likely to help in an emergency situation when other people are present. One explanation for more
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      How do love and attraction work? - Chapter 14

      How do love and attraction work? - Chapter 14

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter focuses on the topics of attraction, love, and close relationships. It examines the different factors that influence attraction and mate selection, including physical attractiveness, similarity, and proximity. It also discusses the theories of love and the different types of love, such as passionate love and companionate love. The chapter explores different theories in attraction and forming close relationship. It also explains which relationships work and which relationship don’t.


      What does evolution theory tell us about attraction?

      Physical attractiveness is a powerful factor in human social interactions and has been found to be common across cultures. This is because physical attractiveness signals good health and genetic fitness, and is therefore considered desirable in potential mates. People who are physically attractive are often also perceived as having other positive qualities, such as intelligence, kindness, and sociability, even when there is no evidence to support these assumptions.

      Evolutionary theory suggests that humans are attracted to certain physical traits in potential mates because these traits are thought to be indicative of good genes and reproductive fitness. In the context of romantic relationships, women may be attracted to men who display traits such as dominance and resourcefulness, which could indicate that the man would be a good provider and protector for any offspring. Men, on the other hand, may be attracted to women who display traits such as youthfulness and physical beauty, which could suggest that the woman is fertile and able to bear healthy offspring.

      Evolutionary theory can also help explain why people sometimes engage in behaviours that seem counterintuitive to forming long-term relationships. For instance, men may be more likely to engage in short-term sexual relationships with multiple partners, even when they are in a committed relationship. This behaviour could be explained by the idea that men who engage in such behaviour may have a greater likelihood of passing on their genes to a larger number of offspring. Similarly, women may engage in infidelity if they believe that doing so will increase their chances of obtaining resources or securing a better mate.

      While evolutionary theory offers a useful explanation for some aspects of human behaviour, it is important to note that not all behaviours can be explained by evolutionary factors alone. Other social and cultural factors also play a role in shaping human behaviour, and individual differences and personal experiences can also influence relationship preferences and behaviours.


      What increases liking?

      Several factors can contribute to the increase of liking between people. One of the most important factors is similarity, as people tend to like and be attracted to others who share similar attitudes, values, and interests. Similarity is thought to increase liking because it leads to a sense of familiarity and comfort, as well as a perception of validation for one's own beliefs and preferences.

      Familiarity is another important factor that can increase liking. People are more likely to form relationships with those who are physically close to them or with more
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      How does communication work? - Chapter 15

      How does communication work? - Chapter 15

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter is about communication. The chapter explores the process of exchanging information and meaning between people, including the different types of communication, such as verbal and nonverbal communication, intentional and unintentional communication, and conscious and unconscious communication.

      The chapter discusses the role of language in communication, including its function as a system of symbols and rules used to convey meaning. It examines how language use can reflect and reinforce social hierarchies and power structures, and how differences in language use can lead to misunderstandings and miscommunication, particularly across cultures. The chapter also discusses the factors that can influence the effectiveness of communication, such as the social context in which it takes place, the clarity of the message, and the interpretation and feedback of the receiver. It explores the different forms of nonverbal communication, such as facial expressions, gestures, and posture, and how they can convey emotions, attitudes, and social status.

      Finally, the chapter explores the impact of technology on communication, including computer-mediated communication and its effects on social interactions and communities.


      What is communication?

      Communication refers to the exchange of information and meaning between people. It can take various forms, such as verbal communication through spoken or written language or nonverbal communication through body language, facial expressions, and tone of voice.

      Communication can also be intentional, such as when we make a deliberate effort to convey a message, or unintentional, such as when we communicate nonverbally without intending to do so.

      And communication can be conscious or unconscious. Conscious communication refers to communication that is intended and deliberate, where the speaker is aware of what they are saying and how they are saying it. This type of communication involves the active processing and selection of information that is then conveyed to the receiver.

      Unconscious communication, on the other hand, refers to communication that is unintentional and automatic, where the speaker may not be aware of the information they are conveying or how it is being conveyed. Examples of unconscious communication include nonverbal cues such as facial expressions, tone of voice, and body language, which can convey emotions and attitudes without the speaker being aware of it.

      Effective communication requires not only the clear transmission of information but also the interpretation and feedback of the receiver. This means that successful communication is not just about conveying a message but also ensuring that the receiver understands and interprets it correctly. Feedback from the receiver is essential in ensuring that communication is effective and that the intended message has been received and interpreted as intended.

      The social context in which communication takes place can also impact its effectiveness and interpretation. Social context can refer to various factors, such as the relationship between the communicators, the setting in which communication takes place, and cultural norms and values that may influence communication. For example, communication in a formal setting, such as a business meeting, may be different from communication in an informal setting, such as a more
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      What is the role of culture in social psychology? - Chapter 16

      What is the role of culture in social psychology? - Chapter 16

      What is this chapter about?

      This chapter is about culture and its role in shaping our thoughts, behaviours, and social interactions. The chapter discusses how culture can be defined and located within social psychology, how culture and history intersect to create cultural contexts, and how culture shapes our thoughts and behaviours. The chapter also explores the differences between Eastern and Western cultures, and presents dimensions for comparing cultures. Also, the chapter discusses how culture is expressed through norms and identity, and highlights some of the contrasts between cultures. Finally, the chapter examines what the current limits of social psychology are and why it is important that social psychology theories and concepts are tested and validated across diverse cultural contexts.


      Why is culture important in social psychology?

      Culture refers to the shared beliefs, values, norms, customs, and practices of a society or group of people. These cultural factors have a profound impact on how individuals perceive and respond to different social situations.

      Social psychology provides a framework for studying the influence of culture on behaviour. It examines how cultural factors affect the cognitive processes, emotions, and behaviour of individuals. For example, culture can shape the way individuals think about themselves and others, and influence their attitudes and beliefs towards different groups of people.

      One way in which culture influences behaviour is through social norms. Norms refer to the unwritten rules and expectations that guide behaviour in a particular society or group. Cultural norms can vary widely across different societies and can shape behaviour in various ways. For example, some cultures may place a greater emphasis on individualism and personal achievement, while others may value collectivism and communal harmony.

      Another way in which culture influences behaviour is through social identity. Social identity refers to the way individuals define themselves in relation to their social group memberships. Cultural factors can shape individuals' social identities and influence their behaviour towards others who are perceived as belonging to different groups. For example, cultural factors such as race, ethnicity, and nationality can influence the way individuals perceive and interact with people from different backgrounds.

      What is the role of historical events in social psychology?

      Historical events can have a lasting impact on a society's culture. For example, the experiences of war, oppression, and colonization can shape a society's collective memory and affect its values, beliefs, and norms. Similarly, cultural traditions such as religion, art, and literature can play a significant role in shaping a society's culture and influencing behaviour. Social psychology can examine how these historical events and cultural factors influence behaviour and social interactions.


      What is the influence of Eastern and Western culture on thought and behaviour?

      Cultural differences between Eastern and Western societies can lead to different psychological tendencies and ways of thinking, which in turn has an impact on behaviour and social interactions.

      Eastern and Western cultures differ in their values, beliefs, and norms. For example, Western cultures tend to emphasize individualism, autonomy, and independence, while Eastern cultures more
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      Summaries and study notes with the 9th edition of Social Psychology by Hogg & Vaughan - Bundle
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