• How does perceptual development work?
  • What is intermodal perception?
  • How does motor development progress in children?
  • How do babies learn?

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      Summaries per chapter with the 6th edition of How Children Develop by Siegler et al. - Bundle

      Why do we study the development of children? - Chapter 1

      Why do we study the development of children? - Chapter 1


      How do we raise children?

      The development of a child can raise various questions in multiple levels of society. A question that most parents have is how they can teach their children how to deal with anger and other negative emotions. Sometimes parents spank their children, but this has turned out to be counterproductive. However, several effective ways are known to control the anger of a child. One way is to respond sympathetically to children who show negative emotions, so children are able to cope in a better way with the situation causing the negative emotions. Another way is to help the children look for positive alternatives when they show negative emotions.

      What did the Romanian adoption study find?

      A Romanian study investigated children who grew up in orphanages under neglecting circumstances in Romania. Due to the policy in orphanages at the time, there was a lack of (physical) contact for the orphans. At the time these children were adopted by British families, they were often found to be malnourished, lagging behind in physical and intellectual development, and socially immature. The study compared these orphans with adopted children from Great Britain. At the age of six, Romanian orphans were still lagging behind in their physical, intellectual, social, and emotional development. In particular, social and emotional limitations persisted into adulthood. These developmental delays were found to be related to significantly low activation of the amygdala. The main conclusion of this study is that the timing of experiences influences their consequences.

      How do we choose social policies?

      Furthermore, the development of a child can raise questions about a responsible social policy, which is one more reason to learn about child development. Research can be done using meta-analysis, a method combining results from independent studies to arrive at conclusions based on all the studies. The question can arise whether it is better to invest in the prevention of developmental problems in children, or to invest in solving developmental problems that already exist in children.

      For example, think about the reliability of a young child's courtroom testimony. It may happen that the judge believes the statement of a child, whereby an innocent person is punished, or vice versa, a guilty person can

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      How does prenatal development work? - Chapter 2

      How does prenatal development work? - Chapter 2


      How does prenatal development work?

      Throughout history, many different ways to view prenatal development can be found. Aristotle rejected the idea of epigenesis, the emergence of new structures and functions during development.

      For example, the Beng in West Africa believe that every baby is a reincarnation of an ancestor. The spirit of the ancestor, the wru, does not yet want earthly life and retains a double existence, traveling back and forth between the present and the wrugbe, the spirit world. If the child dies before the umbilical stump has dropped of, there is no funeral because it is assumed that the child is not yet a person and has returned to the spirit world.

      What is conception?

      Gametes are reproductive cells (ovum or sperm) that contain only half of the genetic material of all other cells in the body. Gametes are produced by meiosis, a special type of cell division where the egg cell and sperm cell receive only one member from each of the 23 chromosome pairs. An egg cell and a sperm cell together form a complete set of 23 chromosome pairs.

      Conception is the joining of an egg cell from the mother and a sperm cell from the father. During the ejaculation, the sperm cells travel through the uterus to the egg for 6 to 7 hours. Only 200 of the 500 million sperm cells survive this journey. It is a process like in Darwin's theory: survival of the fittest. There can be several reasons why sperm cells does not make it to the egg cell. First, there may be problems with the sperm cells themselves, which is sometimes based on a genetic defect. It is also possible that sperm cells get entangled with each other during the trip. Finally, it is possible that the sperm cells go into the fallopian tube that does not harbor an egg. One sperm cell fertilizes the egg cell. A fertilized egg is called a zygote. By a chemical reaction, which occurs when a sperm cell reaches the egg cell, a layer is formed around the egg, so that other sperm cells can no longer reach or fertilize the egg cell. In the first two weeks, the fertilized cell is a zygote.

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      How do nature and nurture play a role in development? - Chapter 3

      How do nature and nurture play a role in development? - Chapter 3

      The first studies on development were trying to answer the question of which of the following is more influential on the child’s development: the genes or the environment. Since the discovery of the DNA, the basic component of heredity, enormous advances have been made in deciphering the genetic code. Researchers have mapped the entire genome, the complete set of genes of an organism. Later studies on development found both, the genes and the environment, as important influences in the development of a child. The genes and the environment interact continuously with each other, therefore both influence the development of a child.


      Which genetic and environmental factors play a role?

      There are three elements that are important in the development of a child: genotype, phenotype and the environment. Genotype is the inherited genetic material of an individual. Phenotype is the observable expression of the genotype, namely the body characteristics and behavior. The environment is an all-encompassing aspect of an individual and his / her surrounding aspects, unlike the genes.

      These three elements are involved in five relationships that are fundamental to the development of every child: 

      How do the genes of the parents influence the child's genotype?

      Chromosomes are molecules of the DNA containing genetic information. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is made of molecules containing all biochemical instructions involved in the formation and functioning of an organism. These instructions are packaged in genes, sections of chromosomes that are the basic heredity unit of all living beings. People normally have 46 chromosomes, 23 pairs, in each cell nucleus. Except in the germ cells, these only contain 23 chromosomes.   

      A child shows similarities on the general human level (the child has feet and arms) and on an individual level (the child shares similarities with family members). Different mechanisms ensure the genetic diversity between people. One is mutation. Mutation is a change in the components of the DNA. Another mechanism is crossing. Crossing over is a process where parts of DNA swap from one chromosome to another chromosome. Crossing over promotes the variability between individuals. 

      Every person has one pair of sex chromosomes. Sex chromosomes transmit the genetic information. A man has an X chromosome and a Y chromosome. A woman possesses two X chromosomes. For this reason, the father always determines the sex of a child. When the man transmits a Y chromosome to the child, it becomes a boy (XY) and when the man passes an X chromosome to the child, it becomes a girl (XX).     

      What is the genetic contribution of the child to

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      What are different theories on the cognitive development of children? - Chapter 4

      What are different theories on the cognitive development of children? - Chapter 4

      There are five different theories about the cognitive development of a child that will be discussed in this chapter.


      What is the focus in Piaget's theory?

      Piaget's theory remains the best known cognitive development theory. Piaget focuses on the way children think at different ages. He sees the child as a researcher: the child acquires knowledge through experiences. Children are motivated to learn without instructions or rewards from others. Piaget is therefore seen as a constructivist.

      Piaget believed that genes and environment interact in order to produce cognitive development. Piaget saw the development as both a continuous process and a discontinuous process. The main aspects of continuity are: assimilation, accommodation, and balance. Assimilation is a process in which incoming information is processed on basis of the knowledge the child already has. Accommodation is a process in which new incoming information is processed on the basis of knowledge the child did not have before. Balance is a process in which a balance is created between the first two processes in order to understand new information. When a child does not understand something, it is in a phase of non-equilibrium.  

      Many of the important aspects of Piaget's theory are discontinuous aspects, which he named stages of cognitive development. The following stages are the central characteristics of Piaget's theory of urbanism: qualitative change, broad applicability, brief transitions and invariant sequence. Qualitative change means that the older a child becomes, the more the interpretations of certain behavior change. Broad applicability means that the thinking about certain subjects is influenced by the general way of thinking. Brief transitions explains the period of transition in the way of thinking. By invariant sequence is meant that each child runs all stages in the same order.

      Piaget's theory consists of the following four stages: the sensorimotor phase, the preoperational phase, the concrete operational phase, and the formal operational phase.

      1. What is the sensorimotor phase?

      The sensorimotor phase occurs between the birth and the child's second year of life. The development of intelligence happens through sensory perceptions and motor actions. Important concepts in this phase are object permanence, the A-not-B-error

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      How do children develop perception, action, and learning? - Chapter 5

      How do children develop perception, action, and learning? - Chapter 5


      How does perceptual development work?

      There is a difference between perception and sensation. Sensation is the processing of basic information from the external world, through sensory receptors in the sensory organs and the brain. Perception is a process focusing on organizing and interpreting sensory information.

      How does visual development take place in children?

      In the past the visual capacity of babies was underestimated. Research shows that babies have a greater visual capacity than previously believed. Research was done through preferential looking technique and habituation. The preferential looking technique is a method for research of the baby's visual attention, whereby babies are presented with two patterns or two objects at the same time and eventually one pattern/ object is preferred. Habituation is a method of researching the sensory and perceptual development. The baby is repeatedly presented a stimulus until it gets used to it and shows a reduced response. Then a new stimulus is presented. If the reaction of the baby suddenly increases, one can conclude that the baby is capable of differentiating between old and new stimuli.

      By using the preferential viewing technique, researchers are able to assess various visual aspects of babies. Visual acuity is the degree of visual discrimination. Normally babies prefer strong visual contrasts, such as black and white. The preference arises through the low contrast sensitivity of babies. Contrast sensitivity is the ability to distinguish between light and dark areas in visual patterns. Babies have low contrast sensitivity because the cones in the eyes are not well-developed yet. Cones are light-sensitive neurons, which are concentrated in the fovea of ​​the eye. The fovea is the central area of the eye. The cones of babies capture only 2% of the light entering the fovea, while adults absorb 65% of the light that enters the fovea. The brains of babies respond to a color change to another category, but not to a color change within a certain category.

      Babies scan the environment for moving objects, this is called visual scanning. The objects/ people have to move slowly, otherwise babies are quickly distracted. They cannot follow rapid movements because their eye movement is quite jerky.

      Perceptual constancy is the perception of objects constant in size, shape, colors, etc., despite a change of the retinal image of the object. Babies are able to experience perceptual constancy.

      Another crucial perceptual skill is object segregation. Object segregation is the perception of boundaries between the objects. Through the movement of different objects together, babies can see if there is only object or multiple objects. As babies grow older, they use general knowledge of the world to distinguish objects.

      Optical expansion occurs when an object comes closer and appears to gets bigger and bigger. Babies are sensitive to this cue at

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      How does language develop? - Chapter 6

      How does language develop? - Chapter 6


      How does language develop in children?

      We use symbols to communicate with other people and to reflect or exchange our thoughts, feelings, and knowledge. Symbols are a tool when communicating with other people. Using language includes language comprehension and language production. Language comprehension is the understanding of what other people say, write or portrait (passive). Language production is speaking, writing or portraying to other people and is active. Language comprehension leads to language production.

      What components does language have?

      Generativity is a concept showing how important communication is. Generativity refers to the idea that through the use of an infinite set of words in our vocabulary, an infinite number of sentences can be formulated, and an infinite number of ideas can be expressed. Language consists of different terms. First, phonemes: the smallest pieces of sound that a language can produce. Then follows a phonological development, which reflects the acquisition of knowledge about sounds of language. Second, morphemes: the smallest pieces of language still having a meaning. Morphemes are composed of one or more phonemes. Here follows a semantic development, which is the knowledge of the meaning of certain expressions in a language. Thirdly, there is syntax: the rules of a language that specify how words of different categories (e.g. verbs, nouns) can be combined. This results in a syntactic development: the knowledge of the rules of a language. Ultimately, there is also a pragmatic development, which means how to learn to use a language.

      What are the requirements for language?

      Full use of language is only achieved by humans. Therefore, one of the requirements is the brain. A second requirement is to realize that a language can be learned it must be seen and heard.

      Language is species-specific, because only people can speak a language. And language learning is species-universal, because in general humans are able to learn any language, except people with cognitive impairments. Dogs, parrots and mainly monkeys can also learn to understand our language to a certain extent. Monkeys can be taught to communicate using a lexigram board. The human brain builds a communication system with the complexity, structure and generativity of language.

      For almost everyone, the left hemisphere is dominant in language. The left hemisphere controls and presents language-related stimuli. The critical period for learning a language is between the fifth year of life and puberty. The critical period for language is a period in which language develops

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      How does conceptual development take place? - Chapter 7

      How does conceptual development take place? - Chapter 7

      Concepts are general ideas or terms that can be used to group objects, situations, qualities, or abstractions, that let them become equal in a certain way.


      How do children learn to understand who and what?

      How do children learn to divide objects into categories?

      Children use categorical hierarchy to distinguish between categories. The categories are classified into set-subset relation, such as animal-dog-poodle. Small children especially use perceptual categorization: grouping objects that are similar. It can already be seen in children from 3 to 4 months old. As children grow older, they also understand hierarchical and causal relationships between categories. The categorical hierarchies’ children are forming often contain three levels: the superordinate level (for example a plant), the subordinate level (for example an oak tree), and the basic level (for example, a tree). Children mainly learn the basic level first, after the parents help them to gain understanding of the higher levels. In an older age, children establish causal relationships between objects through explanations or the idea of cause and consequences between objects. This helps the child understand the categories and form more categories.

      How do children learn to understand others and themselves?

      Naive psychology is about a basic understanding of ourselves and others. Children are born with an implicit self-awareness that they are an individual separate from others. By the age of 4 months, children have developed a basic understanding of which objects can be grasped for and which cannot (for example, objects that are too far away). Between 18 and 24 months, children have developed a more explicit self-awareness and they recognize dirt on their face in the mirror and do their best to look good to others.

      Children imitate other people and form emotional bonds with them, learning about how people and how they differ from each other. Babies as young as a few months old already seem to understand that behavior has a purpose. Children eventually learn to understand the intentions of others by figuring out what kinds of objects can have intentions. When objects 'respond' appropriately, a baby is more likely to see the object as something with intention, even if it is a blob moving based on instructions from an investigator. Before the first year of life, children have already learned a lot about how people behave and how their behavior is related to their intentions and goals.

      Before age 1, children also appear to be able to notice differences between individuals. For example, children between 10 and 12 months old appear to prefer food and toys that are offered by someone who speaks their mother tongue.

      After the first year of life, the naive psychology of children develops further. Late in the first and early second year of life, babies learn to

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      What is intelligence and how does it develop? - Chapter 8

      What is intelligence and how does it develop? - Chapter 8


      What is intelligence?

      The concept of intelligence is difficult to describe. One way, is to describe intelligence through three levels of analysis:

      1. Some see intelligence as one factor called general intelligence, g. General intelligence are cognitive processes influencing the ability to think and learn on all intellectual tasks.
      2. There are also good arguments for intelligence to consist of two types of intelligence, fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. Fluid intelligence is the ability to solve new problems at a certain moment, for example by drawing conclusions and understanding relationships between concepts that have never been encountered before. Fluent intelligence usually peaks in early adulthood and then slowly decreases. Crystallized intelligence is the actual knowledge about the world. Crystallized intelligence starts early in life and continues to multiply. Thurstone divides intelligence in a complex way into seven skills. These are the so-called seven primary mental abilities crucial for intelligence: word fluency, verbal meaning, reasoning, spatial visualization, numbering, rote memory and perceptual speed. The division of intelligence into seven abilities equals the distinction between fluid and crystallized intelligence. Some scores on certain abilities correlate more with each other than with scores of other abilities.
      3. The third view sees many different processes involved in intelligence. This leads to more specification of processes in intellectual behavior than the other two levels.

      The perspectives can be brought together. According to Carroll, there is a model for intelligence: the three-stratum theory of intelligence. This model contains general intelligence in the top layer of the hierarchy, then several moderately general abilities in the middle layer, and at the bottom layer numerous specific processes. In short: all three levels are necessary to understand and measure intelligence.

      How can intelligence be measured?

      Measuring intelligence is difficult because it is an invisible capacity. Measuring observable behavior is the only way to measure intelligence. For different ages, there are several tests to measure intelligence. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC) is used for children from six years and older. The design that underlies the WISC-V is consistent with Carroll's three-layer theory.

      What is the intelligence quotient?

      In most intelligence tests, a general quantitative measuring instrument is used to measure the intelligence of a child. Like this it is comparable with other children of the same age. It is called the Intelligence Quotient (IQ). Many characteristics, including intelligence, are normally distributed. This normal distribution is a pattern of

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      What are the theories on social development in children? - Chapter 9

      What are the theories on social development in children? - Chapter 9


      What do psychoanalytic theories claim about the social development of children?

      Psychoanalytic theories have had the greatest impact on western cultures. These theories have had a major influence on the way of thinking about personality and social developments. This is mainly because og Sigmund Freud. Erik Erikson later accounted on the ideas of Sigmund Freud. Both theories are based on biological ripening. According to Freud, the behavior is motivated by the need to satisfy basic drifts. The resulting instincts and motives usually arise unconsciously. According to Erikson, development is motivated by crises in the development related to age and biological maturation. The individual must successfully complete all crises in order to achieve healthy development. The theories of Freud and Erikson are stage theories.

      How does Freud perceive social development?

      Freud is the founder of the psychoanalytic theory. His theory about the development of children is also called the theory of psychosexual development. He thought that even very young children have a sexual nature that motivates their behavior and influences their relationships with other people. Children go through five phases of universal developments. According to Freud, psychic energy focuses on different erogenous zones. Psychic energy consists of the biological urges that feed the behavior, the thoughts and the feelings. The erogenous zones are areas of the body that are erotically sensitive, such as the mouth, the anus, and the genitals. According to Freud, every child encounters conflict with his erogenous zones. He states that their success or failure of this conflict, influences the development in their lives.

      The psychic energy consists of the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the first and the most primitive of the three personality structures. Id is unconscious and is driven by the gratification principle, the goal of finding maximum satisfaction as quickly as possible. During the first year of life, the baby is in the first phase of psychosexual development, the oral stage, in which the primary source of satisfaction and pleasure comes from oral activities. Later in the first year of life develops the second personality structure, the ego. Ego is the rational, logical, problem-solving component of the personality. During the second year of life, the child gains more control over body processes such as urination and at that point the child enters the second phase: the anal stage, in which the primary source of satisfaction and pleasure comes from defecation. Third phase is the phallic stage, which is present from the age of 3 to 6 years. In the phallic stage sexual pleasure is focused on the genitals. This is how the superego developsthe

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      How does emotion development in children take place? - Chapter 10

      How does emotion development in children take place? - Chapter 10


      How do emotions develop in children?

      Emotions are often equated with feelings. Development ideologists have a more complex approach to look at emotions. They see emotions as consisting of multiple components: neural responses, the physiological factors (heartbeat, breaths, hormone levels), subjective feelings, emotional expression and the desire to take action (flee, approach, or change people or things in the environment). However, there is a lot of discussion about whether emotions are innate or not.

      What are theories regarding the nature and development of emotions?

      The discrete emotions theory states that emotions are innate and that it is possible to distinguished between them from birth. Also, it states that each emotion is accompanied by a specific set of physical reactions and facial expressions. This is derived from the ideas of ​​Darwin. According to his theory, emotional reactions are mainly automatic and not based on cognition. Babies have a set of recognizable emotions without being able to actively learn about these emotions. Also, certain expressions of emotions around the world are the same. The functionalist perspective, however, states that emotions depend on the environment, and the function of emotions is to take actions to achieve a certain goal. Emotions can not be distinguished discrete of each other here and are partly based on the social environment. The two approaches agree that cognition and experiences influence emotional development.

      When do emotions develop?

      Researchers agree that there are several universal basic emotions in all human cultures. These basic emotions have important survival and communication functions. They can be seen very early in life, which supports discrete emotion theory.

      In the first month, a baby sometimes smiles during sleep. These early smiles are reflexive and are not generated by social interaction. From the third to the eighth week, a baby smiles due to external stimuli. When they are about 6-7 weeks they start laughing at others, this is called social smiles. The seventh month, babies laugh at familiar people. This is intended to strengthen the bond. At the end of the first year babies show that they enjoy unexpected things, like mommy with a crazy hat on.

      From the fourth month, babies seem to be aware of unknown objects and events. When they are 6-7 months old, the first signs of fear start to occur. Mainly fear of strangers. This normally disappears around the second year of life. In the eighth to the thirteenth month babies show fear when they are separated from the primary caregivers. This is called separation anxiety. This fear decreases as they age.

      Anger is the reaction of a child

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      What do attachment theories say about development? - Chapter 11

      What do attachment theories say about development? - Chapter 11

      Children develop certain forms of attachment. Attachment is an emotional bond with a specific person, a bond that remains constant over time. Attachment is often discussed as the relationship between a child and his/her caregiver, but attachment can also occur in adulthood.


      Which attachment styles do we distinguish?

      What is the attachment theory?

      The attachment theory was proposed by Bowlby. This theory states that children have a biological predisposition to attach themselves to the caregivers, in order to increase the chance of their own survival. Later, Ainsworth expanded and tested Bowlby's ideas. According to Freud, children's development is shaped by their early relationship with their mothers. Bowlby agreed on this, but changed the idea of ​​Freud's "needy, dependent infant" into a "competence - motivated child" that uses his/her caregiver as a secure base. This secure base is based on the idea that the presence of a trusted caregiver can provide a child with a sense of security and makes it possible for the child to explore the environment.

      The attachment process has an innate basis, but its development and quality depend on the experiences of the child with their caregivers. According to Bowlby, the development of attachment takes place in four phases:

      1. Pre-attachment takes place from birth to the age of 6 weeks. Here babies produce innate signals, such as crying. The baby is reassured by the comforting action of the caregiver.
      2. Attachment-in-the-making takes place between the age of 6 weeks and 6-8 months. Babies react to familiar people, for example by smiling, laughing out loud, or babbling. They calm down more quickly and build up a sense of trust in the caregivers.
      3. Clear-cut attachment takes place between the ages of 6-8 months and 1.5 years. In this phase babies actively seek contact with the caregiver. Babies greet the mother when she appears, but may experience stress when she leaves: separation anxiety or distress.
      4. Reciprocal relationships take place from the age of 1.5/ 2 years on. Children develop cognitive and language abilities to understand the feelings, goals and motives of their parents. This creates a mutual relationship in which the child plays an active role. In this phase, the separation anxiety becomes less.

      The outcome of these phases is an emotional bond between child and caregiver(s). The child develops an internal working model of attachment. This is the mental representation the child has of himself, of the attachment figure and of relationships in general. This mental representation has developed through experiences with the caregiver(s). The internal working model guides the interactions of the child with other people, even when the child grows older.

      How is security of attachment measured?

      Ainsworth did research in both the USA and Uganda, where she studied the mother-child relationship during infants' explorations and

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      What is the influence of family on the development of children? - Chapter 12

      What is the influence of family on the development of children? - Chapter 12


      What family structures do we distinguish?

      The adult family members who have the greatest effects on the development of a child are the ones with whom they live together. They are in regular contact, they raise the children and support them financially. The term family structure refers to the number of people living in a household and the relationships between them.

      What kind of general family structure changes have occurred in the US?

      More and more children are living with one parent or with unmarried parents. In 2014, 46% of children lived with parents in their first marriage, compared to 73% in 1960. This is accompanied with a growth in the number of children living with a single parent. The family structure has major implications for the income. Almost half of the children living with a single parent live below the poverty line, compared to 14% of the children with two married parents. In addition, single parents often have less time for their child.

      Also, the age at which women have their first child has increased. There are fewer teenage pregnancies. Getting children at a later age has clear advantages. Parents generally have more financial resources and are less likely to have a divorce within ten years. Often they are also more positive in their upbringing.

      More and more children live with their grandparents. This has negative effects, because a long time has passed since they raised their own children. Families are also getting smaller due to the fact that women more often have work ambitions and because of improved and more accesable birth control. Family structures are also more and more fluid, partly because of divorce.

      The number of teenage mothers has decreased in the recent years. Getting a child as an adolescent is associated with negative outcomes for both the mother and the child. It has consequences for the possibilities of the mother in terms of education, career and relationships with peers. They often have weak skills in terms of parenting. Children more often show disorganized attachment and problems such as weak impulse control and delays in cognitive development, and also a higher chance of delinquent behavior and early sexual activity. Young mothers who have knowledge about the development of a child and their upbringing raise children with fewer problems. The presence of the father can be beneficial for both the child and the mother.

      What is the influence of having parents with the same sex on the development of a child?

      The number of gay and lesbian parents has increased significantly in recent years. Children with parents of the same gender do not differ from children with parents of different genders in terms of adaptation, personality,

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      What is the influence of peers on the development of a child? - Chapter 13

      What is the influence of peers on the development of a child? - Chapter 13

      Peers are people of about the same age and status who are not relatives.


      What is the importance of play?

      Play refers to voluntary activities that children do without any other motivation than for their own pleasure. Research has shown that play contributes to the social, emotional, cognitive and physical development of children. Children engage in increasingly complex forms of play as they get older. Play is also used as a basis for interventions to help young children deal with mental problems or cope with trauma.

      What different types of play do we distinguish?

      There are different types of play. Non-social types of play include:

      • Unoccupied play: children look at objects in their environment, but their attention is not held by anything.
      • Onlooker play: kids watch other kids play.
      • Solitary play: children play on their own and do not pay attention to the goodbye of others around them.

      Social forms of play are:

      • Parallel play: children play next to but not together with other children.
      • Associative play: children play together with other children and do the same activity.
      • Co-operative play: children play together with others in an organized way in which each child has its own role.

      Why and how do friendships develop?

      Relationships with peers contribute to the development of a child. Piaget stated that children are more open and spontaneous in expressing certain ideas and beliefs towards peers than towards their parents or other adults. Vygotsky stated that children learn new skills and develop their cognitive abilities through relationships with peers. A friend is a person with whom an individual has an intimate, mutual, positive relationship.

      How do children choose friends?

      Children usually become friends with peers who are pleasant to deal with and who behave pro-socially towards others. Another determining factor is equality of interests and behavior. For young children, proximity is an important factor, this becomes less important with age. Most adolescents report that school is the most common setting in which they spend time with their close friends. Another important factor is gender, girls are mostly friends with girls and boys with boys. In addition, there is also a tendency for children to be friends with others from their own racial or ethnic group, although this influences to a lesser extent.

      Cultural differences influence how children approach their peers to form relationships. In addition, cultural differences influence the roles of peers and

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      How does moral development take place? - Chapter 14

      How does moral development take place? - Chapter 14


      How does moral judgment develop in children?

      The morality of a certain action is not always obvious. The reasoning behind certain behavior is crucial for determining whether that behavior is moral or immoral.

      What is the idea behind Piaget's theory on moral development in children?

      Piaget's theory on moral judgment refers to the fact that interaction with peers has a higher contribution to the moral reasoning of children than the interaction with adults. According to Piaget, there are two phases children go through in the development of moral reasoning, with a transitional period between these two phases:

      Heteronomous morality: it takes place when a child is younger than seven years of age. The child is taught what is right and wrong on the basis of the consequences instead of motives or intentions. In this period, children think that rules are unchanging. Parental control is one-sided and compelling, so children have indisputable respect for the rules of adults. In addition, cognitive immaturity leads to the believe that rules are 'real' things, rather than a product of the human mind.

      Transitional period: occurs when a child is between seven and ten years old. The child takes a more active role in reasoning about what is right or wrong. Interactions with peers are helpful for this transition.

      Autonomous morality: this phase begins when the child is between eleven and twelve years old. The child no longer is blind adopting the rules. The child will consider motives and intentions when assessing behavior.

      This vision has received support from empirical research. However, there has also been criticism. For example, there is little evidence that interactions with peers stimulate moral development. Here, the quality of interactions seems to be important. In addition, Piaget underestimated the ability of children to be aware of intentionality. Very young children can already distinguish between an adult who tries to help (but fails) and an adult who does not want to help.

      What does Kohlberg's theory say about moral development in children?

      Kohlberg's theory of moral judgment states that the development of moral reasoning takes place in a specific series of stages which are discontinuous and hierarchical. Each level is divided into two stage of moral judgment. Only very few people reach the sixth phase of post-conventional moral reasoning. People differ in how many phases they ultimately complete successfully. Here is the complete model:

      Level 1: Preconventional Level

      This phase is self-centered. The focus is on getting rewards and avoiding punishment.

      • Phase 1: Punishment and obedience orientation. Obeying authorities and avoiding punishment. The child is not aware of the interests of others.

      • Phase 2: Instrumental and exchange orientation.

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      How does gender development take place? - Chapter 15

      How does gender development take place? - Chapter 15


      What is the difference between sex and gender?

      Sex is the difference between genetic female (XX) and genetic male (XY). Gender is the social assignment or self-categorization as a woman or man (or neither). Gender-typed refers to behavior that is expected for a person's gender. Cross-gender typed refers to behavior that is expected for the different gender than the person has. Gender typing refers to the process of gender socialization.

      What is the gender binary?

      The binary gender is the prevailing idea that there are only two categories of genders. However, research has shown that there is no such thing as the 'female brain' or 'male brain'. The idea of ​​a difference between 'female hormones' and 'male hormones' is also incorrect, since all sex hormones are present in both men and women. Moreover, according to research, there is no such thing as 'male behavior' and 'female behavior'. Another criticism of binary gender identity is that transgender and non-binary identities exist all over the world, regardless of culture. Finally, the social world is organized and structured according to the gender binary.

      How can research compare boys and girls?

      If gender groups are compared in terms of behavior, it is often the case the genders differ only slightly from each other and there is a lot of overlap and similarities. In addition, there is a lot of variation within the groups, not all members of the same gender are the same. It is important to consider both the magnitude of the differences between the averages of the groups and the amount of overlap in their distributions. This statistical index is called an effect size. In various studies, contradictory results are found. To create an overall pattern, scientists use a statistical technique called meta-analysis to summarize the average effect size and statistical significance.

      What are the theoretical approaches regarding gender development?

      What do biological theories say about gender development?

      There are different theories that focus on biological influences on gender.

      According to the evolutionary psychological theory, gender differences are created by the reproductive benefits and helped humans survive during the course of evolution. Boys often play physical games. This would have reproductive benefits for later in finding friends, hunting and competitions between men. Girls like to maintain social relationships and care for other people. The reproductive benefits for later would be taking care of a

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      What conclusions can we draw from the chapters of this book? - Chapter 16

      What conclusions can we draw from the chapters of this book? - Chapter 16

      This chapter contains an integrative framework of the seven themes that have emerged throughout the book.


      What can we conclude about the influence of nature and nurture?

      If prenatal development proceeds normally, it seems as if it is simply the development of innate potential in which the environment is not important. However, if things go wrong, it is obvious that nature and nurture interact. Consider teratogens, harmful substances the child can get in contact to in the womb. The extent to which negative effects occur depends on genes and other environmental factors such as timing.

      A certain nature also evokes a certain nurture. For example, babies that are cute motivate people in the environment to play and interact with them. Timing is also important, normal development of certain skills is only possible when a child is exposed to relevant experiences during a specific period. If this does not happen, developmental retardation can arise in terms of perception, language, intelligence, emotions and social behavior.

      Many genetically influenced characteristics only emerge during later childhood, adolescence or adulthood. Think of the physical changes that occur during puberty or the development of nearsightedness in later childhood or early adolescence. Schizophrenia also usually manifests itself later. In all these characteristics, an interaction between nature and nurture is also important.

      All in all, it seems like everything affects each other. Genes, traits and behavioral tendencies interact with the nurture that children receive in different ways. In this way self-image, intellect, actions and other qualities arise.

      What can we conclude about the role that children play in their own development?

      Even before birth, children learn to distinguish between different stimuli and when they are born they are already able to selectively focus on certain interesting objects. Their actions also elicit reactions from other people, which further shapes their development. This ability to interact with the environment is greatly enhanced during the first year of life. The children learn to follow moving objects with their eyes, and they learn how to crawl which helps to actively explore the environment. As the development continues, children learn to talk

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