Anti-social boys are less responsive to social reinforcement. Punishment only has short-term suppressive effects on behaviour. Punishment only seems effective in combination with positive reinforcement. Coercion refers to a process during which aversive events are used to control the behaviour of another person (i.e. control behaviour using threats). A social action must be experienced by others as aversive and be used contingently to be part of the coercive process. An aversive event may serve any of the three functions:An aversive behaviour by person 1 at time 1 leads to a positive outcome by person 1 at time 2 (i.e. reinforcement).An aversive behaviour by person 1 at time 1 leads to a negative consequence by person 2 at time 2 (i.e. punishment).An aversive behaviour by person 1 at time 1 leads to an aversive behaviour by person 2 at time 2 which results in desistance of aversive behaviour by person 1 at time 3 (i.e. negative reinforcement; escape conditioning).These sequences are not pathological by themselves. A lot of the aversive events (e.g. attack) are positively reinforced by the victim (e.g. give up bicycle; cry). This leads to an increase in the probability of future effects on the victim. Peers and siblings may be important sources of positive reinforcement, especially for hitting.Overlearned activities require very little active cognitive processing making it possible to do something else at the same time (e.g. driving and talking). Coercion may be overlearned. The effects of reinforcement and punishment contingencies found in family interaction sequences may be automatic, meaning that they are not mediated by thought or expectancies. Family therapy is very difficult because the coercion process is automatic.In one intervention, it may be useful to provide clearly stated directives in neutral effect and follow-up with positive reinforcement for cooperation and small negative sanctions (e.g. time out) for non-compliance....


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