The twin pillars of critical thinking are knowing how to learn and knowing how to think. Critical thinking is a necessary skill for the future. Critical thinking is a broad term that describes reasoning in an open-ended manner with an unlimited number of solutions and involves constructing a situation and supporting the reasoning that went into a conclusion. Nondirected or automatic thinking are not part of critical thinking. Cognitive process instruction refers to utilizing the knowledge we have accumulated about human thinking processes and mechanisms in ways that can help people improve how they think. Critical thinking is best cultivated in a school environment that encourages students to ask questions. There are four steps to critical thinking instruction:Explicitly learn the skill of critical thinkingDevelop the disposition for effortful thinking and learningDirect learning activities in ways that increase the probability of trans-contextual transferMake metacognitive monitoring explicit and overtA good critical thinker:Has the habit of planningHas motivation for critical thinkingIs flexible and open to new ideasHas persistenceAcknowledges errorsIs willing to change stancesDoes not use self-justificationIs mindfulIs consensus-seekingUses metacognitionRecognizes when critical thinking is necessaryCritical thinking requires motivation to exert the conscious effort needed to work in a planful manner, to check accuracy, gather information and to persist when the solution is not obvious.Self-justification refers to making excuses for a mistaken belief in order to protect the self-image. Mindfulness refers to the simple act of drawing novel distinctions. Consensus-seeking refers to an openness in thinking that allows members of a group to agree on some aspects of a solution and disagree on others. Recognizing when critical thinking is necessary is also important. Metacognition refers to our knowledge of what we know and...


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      Using and finding summaries, study notes en practice exams on JoHo WorldSupporter

      There are several ways to navigate the large amount of summaries, study notes en practice exams on JoHo WorldSupporter.

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