Summary: Otero, T.M., Barker, L.A., Naglieri, J.A. (2014). Executive Function Treatment and Intervention in Schools, Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 3:3, 205-214.

Executive function (EF) refers to a variety of cognitive processes. These are largely mediated by the prefrontal areas of the frontal lobes that encompass both cognitive and affective constructs including planning, working memory, attention, inhibition, self-monitoring, self-regulation, and initiation. Success in various aspects of life is highly dependent on having intact EF abilities, especially within the educational environment. EF deficits in childhood have been shown to have a negative impact on academic, social-emotional, and adaptive functioning later in life, and they are present at all stages throughout development in children both with and without neurodevelopmental disorders. The extensive nature of EF deficits among all populations of school-aged children results in a critical need to begin developing and identifying research-based interventions that target both global and narrow aspects of EF. EF deficits in the school environment can be cognitive (which often manifest in academic difficulties) or affective (which are often viewed as behavioral problems) in nature. Students with deficits in EF may struggle with shifting between activities and/or may have difficulty prioritizing important tasks, as well as with time management and meeting deadlines. Planning for the future is difficult; they tend to only focus on the immediate and may struggle with resisting temptation, are impulsive, and do not think before they act. They may not appear to be paying attention and frequently get out of their seat or ask to leave the room, usually at inappropriate times. The multidimensional nature of EF requires the use of various diverse methods of assessment that take intoaccount the fact that EF constructs such as response inhibition, working memory, planning, and response preparation...

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