Deconstructing the construct: A network perspective on psychological phenomena - a summary of an article by Schmittmann, Cramer, Waldorp, Epskamp, Kievit, & Dorsboom (2011)

Critical thinkingArticle: Schmittmann, V, D., Cramer, A, O, J., W., Waldorp, L, J., Epskamp, S., Kievit, R, A., & Dorsboom, D (2011)Deconstructing the construct: A network perspective on psychological phenomenaIn psychological measurement, three interpretations of measurement systems have been developed:the reflective interpretationThe measured attribute is conceptualized as the common cause of the observablesFormative interpretationThe measured attribute is seen as the common effect of the observables.Attributes are conceptualized as systems of causally coupled (observable) variables. In reflective models, observed indicators (item or subject scores) are modelled as a function of a common latent (unobserved) and item-specific error variance.Commonly presented as ‘measurement models’.In these models, a latent variable is introduced to account for the covariance between indicators.In reflective models, indicators are regarded as exchangeable save for measurement parameters.The observed correlations between the indicators are spurious in the reflective model.Observed indicators should correlate, but they only do so because they share a cause.In formative models, possibly latent composite variables are modelled as a function of indicators.Without residual variance on the composite, models like principal components analysis and clustering techniques serve to construct an optimal composite out of observed indicators.But, one can turn the composite into a latent composite if one introduces...

Access options

The full content is only visible for Logged in World Supporters.

More benefits of joining WorldSupporter

  • You can use the navigation and follow your favorite supporters
  • You can create your own content & add contributions
  • You can save your favorite content and make your own bundles
  • See the menu for more benefits

Full access to all pages on World Supporter requires a JoHo membership

  • For information about international JoHo memberships, read more here.


Support JoHo and support yourself by becoming a JoHo member


Become a Member



Connect & Continue
WorldSupporter Resources

WSRt, critical thinking - a summary of all articles needed in the third block of second year psychology at the uva


This is a summary of the articles and reading materials that are needed for the third block in the course WSR-t. This course is given to second year psychology students at the Uva. The course is about thinking critically about scientific research and how such research is

Contributions, Comments & Kudos

Add new contribution

This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.
Enter the characters shown in the image.
Summaries & Study Note of SanneA
Join World Supporter
Join World Supporter
Log in or create your free account

Why create an account?

  • Your WorldSupporter account gives you access to all functionalities of the platform
  • Once you are logged in, you can:
    • Save pages to your favorites
    • Give feedback or share contributions
    • participate in discussions
    • share your own contributions through the 11 WorldSupporter tools
Access level of this page
  • Public
  • WorldSupporters only
  • JoHo members
  • Private

JoHo kan jouw hulp goed gebruiken! Check hier de diverse bijbanen die aansluiten bij je studie, je competenties verbeteren, je cv versterken en je een bijdrage laten leveren aan een mooiere wereld