Practice Exam 2015/2016: Cross-Cultural Management - RUG

Ernest Renan (1882) “What is a nation?”

This is the text of a lecture Renan gave in 1882 in Leiden, The Netherlands. It was a time when the nation state was developing quickly which finally led to World War I. It is not an easy text, but it is famous ever since. And for good reasons. Most importantly, Renan discusses some essential ideas people had and (still) have related to the genesis and nature of `nations’. More in particular, Renan is rather specific on the limits of teleological and deterministic views on nation building processes. His arguments leads him to conclusions with far reaching consequences (and predictions).(He foresaw the establishment of the European Union!).

In the Cross-Cultural Management course, we mainly focused on cultural differences. These cultural differences, however, are often related directly to differences between nations. Think for instance about dimensions of Hofstede and the GLOBE project which ascribe cultural characteristics to national identities.

To guide you through the complexities and many details, we formulate three questions about the text of Renan. The questions are given below. You can try to answer these when you are reading the text, so before the examination. One or two of these questions will be used in the examination. So discuss with your friends and remember your answers well!


Question 1

If Renan was confronted with the 6 cultural dimensions of Geert Hofstede, how do you think he would respond? Would he see these dimensions as an important building block for nation building processes? Or would he be skeptical about their validity? Why do you think this is the case?

Question 2

According to Renan, what is a nation? And what are, according to Renan, not sufficient arguments to explain the establishment of modern nationalities?

Question 3

Looking at the Dutch national anthem, would Renan see its text as a further proof/reflection of the points he wanted to raise in his lecture? Or would he oppose this text and argue that it is based on the arguments/ assumptions he opposes against? Please argue why.


Question 1

Hofstede has Power Distance, Masc.-Fem.,

... Interested? Read the instructions below in order to read the full content of this page.

Access options

The full content is only visible for JoHo members.

  • For information about international JoHo memberships, read more here.
  • Are you already a member? Add your JoHo membership number to your World Supporter account to activate your member access
  • or mail


For Dutch visitors

Toegang tot pagina of document:

Word JoHo donateur of abonnee voor online toegang

  • Om online toegang te krijgen kun je JoHo donateur worden
  • Lees hieronder meer over JoHo donateur en abonnee worden

Je bent al donateur, maar je hebt geen toegang?

  • Log in, of maak een account aan als je dat nog niet eerder hebt gedaan.
  • Voeg je JoHo (member) nummer toe aan je account voor volledige toegang. Je kunt dit nummer vinden op of in de bevestigingsmail van je JoHo donateursinschrijving. Kom je er niet uit, neem dan even contact op!

Kom je er niet helemaal uit of heb je problemen met inloggen?



 JoHo donateur (WorldSupporter) worden

JoHo donateurschap (€5,- per jaar)

  • Voor wie €10,- korting wil op zijn JoHo abonnement
  • Voor wie JoHo WorldSupporter en Smokey projecten wil steunen
  • Voor wie gebruik wil maken van alle gedeelde materialen op WorldSupporter
  • Voor wie op zoek is naar de organisatie bij een vacature

 JoHo abonnementen

    JoHo abonnement (€20,- per jaar)

    • Voor wie online volledig gebruik wil maken van alle JoHo's en boeksamenvattingen voor alle fases van een studie, met toegang tot alle online HBO & WO boeksamenvattingen en andere studiehulp
    • Voor wie gebruik wil maken van de gesponsorde boeksamenvattingen (en er met zijn pinpoints 10 gratis kan afhalen in een JoHo support center of bij een JoHo partner)
    • Voor wie gebruik wil maken van de vacatureservice en bijbehorende keuzehulp & advieswijzers
    • Voor wie gebruik wil maken van keuzehulp en advies bij werk in het buitenland, lange reizen, vrijwilligerswerk, stages en studie in het buitenland
    • Voor wie extra kortingen wil op (reis)artikelen en services (online + in de JoHo support centers)
    • Voor wie extra kortingen wil op de geprinte studiehulp (zoals tentamen tests en study notes) in de JoHo support centers

    Steun JoHo en steun jezelf door JoHo donateur te worden

    Direct Donateur Worden



    Contributions, Comments & Kudos

    Add new contribution

    This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.
    Image CAPTCHA
    Enter the characters shown in the image.
    Summaries & Study Note of Business and Economics World Supporter
    Join World Supporter
    Join World Supporter
    Log in or create your free account

    Why create an account?

    • Your WorldSupporter account gives you access to all functionalities of the platform
    • Once you are logged in, you can:
      • Save pages to your favorites
      • Give feedback or share contributions
      • participate in discussions
      • share your own contributions through the 11 WorldSupporter tools
    Access level of this page
    • Public
    • WorldSupporters only
    • JoHo members
    • Private