Begrippenlijst

Deze samenvatting is gebaseerd op het studiejaar 2013-2014.



Chapter A: Literatuuronderzoek

 

Literature review A detailed overview of the significant literature available about your chosen topic, providing a discussion and critical evaluation, and using clear argument to contextualise and justify your research. (p. 4)

Peer review The process of evaluating an article by experts to ensure the article meets quality criteria before being accepted for publication. (p. 9)

Textbooks Written specifically for audiences such as students or professionals. Material usually presented in an ordered and relatively accessible form. Often draw on a wide range of sources including peer-reviewed academic journal articles. Useful, particularly as an introductory source to get an overview of your research topic and find out who are the recognised experts. (p. 10)

Peer-reviewed academic journal articles Provide detailed reports of research. Articles written by experts in the field and evaluated by other academics (peer reviewers) to assess quality and suitability. Pay rigorous attention to detail and verification of information. Usually contains extensive list of references. Before publication, have usually been revise in response to comments. This is the most useful type for your literature review. Not all academic journal articles are peer-reviewed. (p. 10)

Non-refereed academic journal articles Articles may provide detailed reports of research. Articles selected by an editor or editorial board with subject knowledge. Relevance and usefulness varies considerably. Beware of possible bias. (p. 10)

Professional and trade journal articles Articles written for members of professional or trade organisations, so related to their needs. Consist of a mix of news items and more detailed accounts of a practical nature. Articles rarely based on research, although some provide summaries of research. Can provide useful insights into practice, although may be biased. Need to be used with considerable caution. (p. 10)

Newspaper articles Articles written for members of public, most newspapers addressing a particular market segment. News presented is filtered dependent on events, priority being given to headline-grabbing stories that are likely to appeal to the readers. Good source of topical events and developments. May contain bias in reporting and coverage. (p. 10)

Conference proceedings Articles consist of selected papers presented at a conference, often published as a book or special edition of a journal. Usually peer-reviewed. Increasingly available online. Sometimes difficult to find. Very useful if the theme of the conference matches your research. (p. 10)

Reports Reports on specific topics written by academics and various organisations, including market research organisations and government departments. Beware of possible bias. May not have gone through same review process as peer-reviewed academic journal articles, but those from established organisations are often of high quality. Often difficult to access or expensive to purchase. Can be a useful source of information when the topic matches your research. (p. 10)

Search term Refers to a word or phrase that describes your research topic, question(s) or objectives and can be used either on its own or in combination with other phrases in online databases. (p. 12)

Business Source Complete (EBSCO) Full text articles for over 2,900 English language journals published worldwide. Covera all areas of business and management. Most journals are included only from the 1990s onwards. Also includes Datamonitor industry profiles for various industries, and Economist Intelligence Unit country reports. (p. 13)

Emerald Full text articles for c.150 English language journals published in the UK by Emerald. Covers all areas of business and management. (p. 13)

JSTOR Full text articles for science, social science, arts and humanities journals. Coverage usually extends back to volume 1, issue 1 of journals and more of the current issues of journals are also becoming available. Often the best place to find old articles. (p. 13)

Blackwell Reference Online Latest edition of the 12-volume Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Management, 22 Blackwell Handbooks and Companions covering bussiness and management. (p. 13)

Wiley Online Coverage includes over 1,100 full text journals covering the sciences, business, law, humanities, psychology and social sciences. (p. 13)

Google Scholar Ranks scholarly literature consisting of articles, theses, books, abstracts or court opinions from many disciplines and sources. (p. 13)

Nexis Full text articles in UK national and regional newspapers as well as international news providers. (p. 13)

Abstract Summary of an article, book or report, providing an overview of what it contains and sufficient information for the original to be located. (p. 15)

Plagiarism Presenting the work and ideas of other people and passing it off as your own, without acknowledging and referencing the original source. (p. 20)

 

Chapter B: Conceptueel model

 

Concepts Are the building blocks of models and theories. Are the working definitions that are used in particular analyses for which they have been devised or chosen. Are chosen to be useful, not correct, and are more than just a dictionary definition. (p. 38)

Frameworks Are analytical schemes. Frameworks simplify reality to make it easier to dicsuss, anlyse, or research and they also simplify reality by selecting certain phenomena/variables and suggesting certain relationships between them. They are judged in terms or utility, not correctness. (p. 39)

Kolb’s theory of the learning cycle An example of a staged process type of conceptual framework. He identified four styles of learning: active experimentation, reflective observation, abstract conceptualisation and concrete experience. These four learning styles were linked in a cyclical proccess. Effective learning requires going through a complete cycle. (p. 40)

Maslow’s need hierarchy In many conceptual frameworks, concepts are related because they occupy higher or lower positions on a scale or in hierarchy. Maslow’s hierarchy is a good example. The sequence of human needs, going from the lowest to highest, was as follows: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs and self-actualisation. (p. 41)

Boston Consulting Group Strategic Matrix (Stern & Stalk) This matrix is used to assess the levels of investment needed by different stategic business units. It uses two axes: rate of market growth and relative market share. Business units that have both high market share and a high growth rate are the stars and should be supported. Those with low growth rates but high market shares are cash cows and can be relied upon to generate income without much investment. If a business unit has a small share of slow-growing market, it is classified as a dog and it would be better if the company withdrew from this business. Business units that have a small share of a fast-growing market are question marks because they represent a gamble, and investmen in them may pay off but there is no guarantee. (p. 42)

McKinsey 7S Model Sometimes concepts are related because they are similar. A conceptual framework can consist of groups like themes that are clustered together. A famous exampleis the McKinsey 7S Model. This is a framework for evaluating the effectiveness of an organisation. The first three (strategy, structure, systems) are called the cold triangle and the last four (superordinate goals, staff, skills, style) are grouped as the warm square. (p. 44)

 

Theories Are, in general termes, ideas about how phenomena relate to each other. They are also, more specifically, ideas about how particular events or actions tend to lead to others or are brought about by them. Theories are generalisations and are the inductive heart of scientific study. (p. 47)

Official concepts Sanctioned or published by the top management of an organisation. McClean and Marshall termed this the ‘high profile culture’. (p. 53)

Unofficial concepts Values, beliefs and behaviours chosen by the staff. It is the same as McClean and Marshall’s concept of ‘low profile culture’. (p. 53)

Structure concepts The technologies, procedures, policies and charts that define the ‘architecture’ of an organisation. (p. 54)

Values concepts Beliefs about what is good and bad and what are proper and improper ways of doing things. (p. 54)

Sub-cultures concepts Organisations do not necessarily have a single, unified gains power to hegemony over other groups. (p. 54)

Cultural imperialism concepts When one sub-culture group in an organisation gains power or hegemony over other groups. (p. 54)

 

Chapter C: Academisch schrijven

 

Citation The use of the idea presented by an author and expressed in your own words to support a point in your own work. (p. 131)

Quotation The use of words drawn from the source you need. The words should remain faithful to the original. (p. 131)

Bibliography A listing at the end of your own work of all source materials that you have been consulted as preparation for your paper. You do not need to have referred to al these sources directly in your text. In stome styles the word ‘bibliography’ is used instead of the term ‘reference list’. (p. 131)

Reference list All the books, journals web and online materials you have referred to in your paper. This list is usually at the end of the work. (p. 131)

Ellipsis The three dots used to substitute for words that have been omitted from a quatation called ellipsis and are often used at the beginning of a quote, or where some information that is irrelevant to your point has been omitted for brevity. Obviously, you should not omit words that change the sens of the quotation. (p. 134)

Information-prominent method of citing Here the statement is regarded as being generally accepted within the field of study. For example: Children express an interest in books and pictures from an early age. (Murphy,1995) (p. 134)

Author-prominent method of citing Here the author and date of publication form part of the construction of the sentence. This formulation can be used with appropriate reporting words to reflect a viewpoint. For example: Murphy (1995) claimed that children as young as six months are able to follow a simple story sequence. (p. 134)

Copyright infringement Is regarded as equivalent to stealing, and legal rights are sometimes jealously guarded by companies with the resources to prosecute. (p. 149)

Topic introducer sentence Introduces the overall topic of the text, generally in the very first paragraph. (p. 168)

Topic sentence Introduces a paragraph by identifying the topic of that paragraph. (p. 168)

Developer sentence Expands the topic by giving additional information. (p. 168)

Modulator sentence Acts as linking sentence and is often introduced by a signpost word moving to another aspect of the topic within the same paragraph. (p. 168)

Terminator sentence This sentence concludes the discussion of a topic within a paragraph, but can also be used as a transistion sentence where it provides a link to the topic of the next paragraph. (p. 168)

Deductive model The writer moves from the key point and follows it with supporting information or evidence. (p. 168)

Inductive model The writer presents the supporting information and concludes with the key point. (p. 168)

Reviewing Appraising critically; examining a task or project to ensure that it meets the requirements and objectives of the task and that the overall sense is conveyed well. (p. 174)

Editing Revising and correcting later drafts of an essay, to arrive at a final version. Usually, this involves the smaller rather than the larger details. (p. 174)

Proof-reading Checking a printed copy for errors of any sort. (p. 174)

 

Chapter D: Argumenteren

 

Spider diagrams Start with the question or topic you are going to explore. This goes at the centre of the web. From this point ideas thread outwards, creating a web or tree-like structure. Are excellent for the initial, creative stage of your argument. They ar not so good in helping you turn all those ideas into a coherent and plausible essay. (p. 185)

Flow diagrams This has four stages. First, you have to identify parts of your argument. Then arrange the parts in logical sequence, drawing an arrow between them. Unpack the contents of each parts and draw secondary arrows showing connections between the different parts of your argument. (p. 186)

Standpoints A statement that you wish to prove. May be based on a fact, an opinion or a value judgement. In principle, standpoints based on a fact are verifiable. Opinions cannot be proved and must therefore be made credible. (p. 198)

Arguments Statements that you use to support your standpoint. (p. 198)

Linking statements Standpoints and arguments are connected by linking statements, which often remains implicit. (p. 198)

Causal arguments A causal relationship exists when one phenomenon is the cause of another. If the causality in an argument is proven, it is a strong argument. (p. 198)

Examples An example can also be used as an argument to prove a rule. A general rule can then be deduced from that particular case and other examples. In addition, an example or illustration makes a presentation more lively. (p. 199)

Analogies and metaphors An analogy involves four terms: A is to B as C is to D. An analogy takes two random relationships and equates them to each other. A metaphor involves two terms: one term is compared to another. (p. 199)

Authority arguments Are based on an information source that is regarded as reputable. From the point of view of objectivity, such an argument is not very strong. Yet such arguments often work because they assume that the authority has formed a well-founded view based on knowledge and experience. (p. 199)

Motivational and ethical arguments Speakers who use motivational and ethical arguments are appealing to the subjective experiences and empathy of the audience. Motivational arguments are based on desires and motives that the audience is assume to have, such as economic motives. Ethical arguments are based on the audience presumed standards and values. (p. 199)

Chapter E: Reflecteren

 

Reflection Is about you understanding what happened or where you are now with an issue, being perceptive enough to see what happened and recognising how you felt. (p. 260)

Emotional intelligence We need to develop self-awareness and recognise what others are feeling, know how to handle our emotions and to have self-discipline. (p. 261)

Social intelligence About having empathic skills, motivating and inspiring others and generally knowing how to work most effectively with others. (p. 262)

Description Describe what happened. (p. 263)

Feelings Describe what you were thinking/feeling. (p. 263)

Evaluation Identify what was good/bas about the experience. (p. 263)

Analysis Identify a sense/meaning you can make out of this. (p. 263)

Conclusion Identify what you could have done differently. (p. 263)

Actions Describe what you would do differently next time. (p. 263)

Chapter F: Team Work

 

Forming The team is faced with the need to become acquainted with its members, its purpose, and its boundaries. Relationships must be formed and trust established. Clarity of direction is needed from team leaders. (p. 294)

Norming The team is faced with creating cohesion and unity, differentiating roles, identifying expectations for members, and enhancing commitment. Providing supportive feedback and fostering commitment to a vision are needed from the team leaders. (p. 294)

Storming The team is faced with disagreements, counterdependence, and the need to manage conflict. Challenges include violations of team norms and expectations and overcoming groupthink. Focusing on process improvement, recognising team achievement, and fostering win/win relationships and fostering extraordinary performance are needed from the team leaders. (p. 294)

Performing The team is faced with the need for continuous improvement, innovation, speed, and capitalizing on core competencies. Sponsoring team members’ new ideas, orchestrating their implementation, and fostering extraordinary performances are needed from the team leaders. (p. 294)

SMART goals Specific (S): the goal is clear, and precise targets and standards are identified. Measurable (M): the goal can be assessed and quantified. The extent to which the goals has been achieved is obvious. Aligned (A): the goal is supportive of and consistent with the goals of the broader organisation. People are not pursuing their own objectives independent of their team. Realistic (R): while being difficult and causing performance to stretch, the goal is not foolhardy or a fantasy. Time-bound (T): an end point is identified or a completion date established so that goal achievement is not open-ended. (p. 306)

Everest goals An Everest goal goes beyond normal goal setting. It represents an ultimate achievement, an extraordinary accomplishment, or a beyond-the-norm outcome. Achieving it requires everyhing one can give. An Everest goal is clear and compelling: serves as a unifying focal point; builds team spirit; engages people; and creates positive energy and excitement. (p. 294)

Task-facilitating roles Those that help the team accomplish its objectives. (p. 309)

Relationship-building roles Those are the roles that emphasize the interpersonal aspects of the team. (p. 310)

Blocking roles Roles that inhibit the team or its members from achieving what they could have achieved, and they destroy morale and cohesion. (p. 311)

Chapter G: Gespreksvoering

 

Dialogue specialized form of conversation that seeks to uncover and explore the underlying assumptions and beliefs that people bring to theur converstational decision making. (p. 329)

Discussions Participants often form opinions in advance, marshal evidence and facts to support their conclusions, and then converse with others with the underlying motive of persuading others to their point of view. (p. 331)

Patience Perhaps first among the skills necesarry to understand and practice dialogue is patience. One must be able to wait for the conversation to flower and bloom before plucking a decision from the group. (p. 336)

Team building Since dialogue seeks a consensual outcome, participants in it must have the skills to coordinate team members. Leaders of dialogue will invite participation from all members and do that in a way that is safe and encouraging. (p. 336)

Listening Dialoguers are good listeners. They genuinely care about what people are saying and where their words may be coming from. (p. 336)

Risk-taking Dialogue leaders are also willing to take some risks and reveal their own points of view and underlying thinking. Many so-called leaders are quick to relevant their conclusions but are rectulant, even afraid, to reveal their underlying thinking and basic assumptions, especially if it meant that these are to be open for conversation and examination. (p. 336)

Flexible In the same vein, when one is committed to the best possible solution and not convinced that their way is necessarily the best way, a person can become more open-minded and consequently, flexible. (p. 336)

Seeing assumptions A central, key skill in dialogue is the ability to recognize underlying assumptions. People with this skill are listening carefully to what others say and then inquiring personally or outright what the person must believe or assume in order to have made the statement. (p. 336)

Clear speech The insight into underlying assumptions, of course, is useless without an accompanying ability to articulate what one surmises and to present it to the speaker and/or group in a way that invites further exploration. (p. 337)

 

 

Communication process Before communication can take place, it needs a purpose, a message to be conveyed between a sender and a receiver. The sender encodes the message and passes it through a medium to the receiver, who decodes it. The result is transfer or meaning from one person to another. (p. 345)

Formal channels Are established by the organization and transmit messages related to the professional activities or members. They traditionally follow the authority chain within the organization. (p. 346)

Informal channels These are often spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices. (p. 346)

Filtering Refers to how a sender purposely manipulates information so the receiver will see it more favorably. A manager who tells his boss what he feels the boss wants to hear is filtering information. (p. 355)

Communication apprehension Experiencing undue tension and anxiety in oral communication, written communication, or both. They may find it extremely difficult to talk with others face to face or may become extremely anxious when they have to use the telephone, relying instead on memos or faxes when a phone call would be faster and more appropriate. (p. 357)

High-context cultures Such as China, Korea, Japan and Vietnam. People rely heavily on non-verbal and subtle situational cues in communicating with others, and a person’s official status, place in society, and reputation carry considerable weight. (p. 358)

Low-context cultures Such as people from Europe and North America. They rely essentialy on spoken and written words to convey meaning; body language and formal titles are secondary. (p. 358)

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