Deze samenvatting is gebaseerd op het studiejaar 2013-2014.

Chapter A: Linking Systems to Strategy and the Organization


Information Systems Strategy Triangle The framework connecting business strategy, information system strategy, and organizational systems strategy. (p. 24)

Strategy A coordinated set of actions to fulfill objective, purposes, and goals. (p. 26)

Mission A clear and compelling statement that unifies an organization’s effort and describes what the firm is all about. (p. 26)

Business strategy A plan articulating where a business seeks to go and how it expects to get there. (p. 27)

Cost leadership A business strategy where the organization aims to be the lowest-cost produced in the marketplace. (p. 28)

Differentiation A business strategy where the organization qualifies the product or service in a way that allows it to appear unique in the marketplace. (p. 29)

Focus  A business strategy where the organization limits its cope to a narrower segment of the market and tailors its offerings to that group of customers. (p. 29)

Hypercompetition A theory about industries and marketplaces that suggests that the speed and aggressiveness of moves and countermoves in any given market create and environment in which advantages are quickly gained and lost. (p. 31)

Organizational strategy A plan that answers the question: ‘How will the company organize to achieve its goals and implement its strategy?’; includes the organization’s design as well as the choices it makes to define, set up, coordinate, and control its work processes.  (p. 33)

Business Diamond A simple framework for understanding the design of an organization, linking together the business processes, its values and beliefs, its management control systems, and its tasks and structures. (p. 33)

Collaboration Using social IT to extend the reach of stakeholders, both employees and those outside the enterprise walls. Social IT such as social networks enable individuals to find and connect with each other to share ideas, information and expertise. (p. 34)

Engagement Using social IT to involve stakeholders in the traditional business of the enterprise Social IT such as communities and blogs provide a platform for individuals to join in conversations, create new conversations, offer support to each other, and other activities that create a deeper feeling of connection to the company, brand or enterprise. (p. 34)

Innovation Using social IT to identify, describe, prioritized and create new ideas for the enterprise. Social IT offer the community members a forum to suggest new ideas, comment on other idwas, and vote for their favorite idea, giving managers a new way to generate and decide on products and services. (p. 34)

Social business strategy A plan of how the firm will use social IT to engage, collaboration and innovate. The social business strategy is aligned with organization strategy and IS strategy; includes a vision of how the business would operate if it seamlessly an thoroughly incorporated social and collaborative capabilities throughout the business model. (p. 34)

Managerial levers Organizational, control, and cultural variables that are used by decision makers to effect changes in their organizations. (p. 35)

IS strategy The plan an organization used in providing information services. (p. 36)



Chapter B: Strategic Use of Information Resources in a Global Economy


Information resource The available data, technology, people, and processes within an organization to be used by the manager to perform business processes and tasks. (p. 47)

IT asset Anything, tangible or intangible, that can be used by a firm in its processes for creating, producing, and/or offering its products. (p. 47)

IT capability Something that is learned to developed over time for the firm to create, produce or offer its products. (p. 47)

Web 2.0 The term given to the Internet and its applications that support collaboration, social networking, social media, RSS, mashups, and a number of other information sharing tools. Web 2.0 is not about different technical specifications, nut about using the Internet in different ways from Web 1.0. (p. 47)

Network effect The value of a network node to a person or organization in the network increases when another joins the network. (p. 48)

Supply Chain Management System that manages the integrated supply chain; processes are linked across companies with a companion process at a customer or supplier. (p. 59)

Enterprise Resource Planning A large, highly complex software program that integrates many business functions under a single application. ERP software an include modules for inventory management, supply chain management, accounting, customer support, order tracking, human resource management, and so forth. ERP software is typically integrated with a database. (p. 59)

Customer Relationship Management The management activities performed to obtain, enhance, and retain customers. CRM is a coordinated set of activities revolving around the customer. (p. 59)

Resource-based view A view that attaining and sustaining competitive advantage comes from creating value using information and other resources of the firm. (p. 59)

Strategic alliance An interorganizational relationship that affords one or more companies in the relationship a strategic advance. (p. 64)

Co-opetition A business strategy whereby companies cooperate and compete at the same time. (p. 65)



Chapter C: Organizational Strategy: Managerial Levers


Decision rights Indicates who in the organization has the responsibility to initiate, supply information for, approve, implement and control various types of decisions. (p. 78)

Hierarchial organization structure An organization form or structure based on the concepts of division of labor, specialization, spans of control and unity of command. (p. 80)

Flat organization structure Organization structure with less well-defined chain of command and with ill-defined, fluid jobs. (p. 81)

Matrix organization structure An organizational form or structure in which workers are assigned two or more supervisors, each supervising a different aspects of the employee’s work, in an effort to make sure multiple dimensions of the business are integrated. (p. 82)

Network organization structure Organization form or structure where rigid hierarchies are replaced by formal and informal communication networks that connect all parts of the company; Organization structure known for it flexibility and adaptiveness. (p. 82)

Culture A set of shared values and beliefs that a group holds and that determines how the group perceives, thinks about and appropriately reacts to its various environments; A collective programming of the mind that distinguishes not only societies, but also industries, professions and organizations. (p. 89)

Beliefs Perceptions that people hold about how things are done in their community. (p. 90)

Values Reflects the community’s aspirations about the way things should be done. (p. 90)

Observable artifacts Most visible layer of culture that includes physical manifestions such as traditional dress, symbols in art, acronyms, awards, myths and stories about the group, rituals and ceremonies, etc. (p. 90)

Espoused artifacts Explicitly stated, preferred organization values. (p. 90)

Enacted values Value and norms that are actually exhibited or displayed in employee behaviour. (p. 90)

Assumptions Deepest layer of culture or the fundamental part of every culture that helps discern what is real and important to a group; They are unobservable since they reflect organizational values that have become so taken for granted that they guide organizational behaviour without any of the groups thinking about them. (p. 90)


Chapter D: Work Design: Enabling Global Collaboration


E-mail A way of transmitting messages over communication networks. (p. 105)

Intranet A network used within a business to communicate between individuals and departments. An intranet is an application on the Internet, but limited to internal business use. It is a password-protected set of interconnected nodes that is under the company’s administrative control. (p. 105)

Instant messaging Internet protocol-based application that provides real-time text-based communication between people using a variety of different device types, including computer-to-computer and mobile devices. (p. 105)

Voice over Internet Protocol A method for taking analog audio signals, like the kind you hear when you talk on the phone, and turning them into digital data that can be transmitted over the Internet. (p. 105)

Video teleconference A set of interactive telecommunication technologies that allow two or more locations to interact via twoway video and audio transmissions simultaneously. (p. 105)

Unified communications An evolving communications technology architecture that automates and unifies all forms of human and device communications in context and with a common experience. (p. 105)

Virtual private network A private network that uses a public network such as the Internet to connect remote sites or users. It maintains privacy through the use of a tunneling protocol and security procedures. (p. 105)

Really Simple Syndication (RSS) Refers to a structured file format for porting datea from one platform to information system to another. (p. 106)

File transfer Means of transferring a copy of a file from one computer to another over the Internet. (p. 106)

Virtual world A computer-based simulated environment intended for its users to inhabit and interact via avatars. (p. 106)

Web logs These are online journals link together into a very large network of information sharing. (p. 106)

Wiki Software that allows users to work collaboratively to create, edit, and link Web pages easily. (p. 106)

Groupware Software that enables a group to work together on a project, whether in the same room, or from remote locations, by allowing them simulteaneous access to the same files. Calendars, written documents, e-mail messages, discussion tools, and databases can be shared. (p. 106)


Telecommuting Combining telecommunications with commuting. This term usually means individuals who regurlarly work from home instead of commuting into an office. However, it is often used to mean anyone who works regularly from a location outside their company’s office. (p. 116)

Mobile workers Individuals who work wherever they are physically located. (p. 116)

Offshoring Situation in which IS organization uses contracter services, or even builds its own data center, in a distant land. (p. 120)

Virtual teams Two or more people who work together interdependently with mutual accountability for achieving common goals, do not work in either the same place and/or at the same time, and must use electronic communication technology to communicate, coordinate their activities and complete their team tasks. (p. 122)


Chapter E: Building and Changing Global Business Processes


Silos Self-contained functional units. (p. 138)

Process An interrelated, sequential set of activities and tasks that turn inputs into outputs and has a distinct beginning, a clear deliverable at the end, and a set of metrics that are useful to measure performance. (p. 139)

Agile processes Agile process that iterates through a constant renewal cycle of design, deliver, evaluate, redesign and so on. (p. 142)

Business process reengineering Radical change approach which occurs overa short amount oftime. (p. 143)

Total Quality Management A management philosophy in which quality metrics drive performance evaluation of people, processes, and decisions. The objective of TQMis to continually, and often incrementally, improve the activities of the business toward the goal of eliminating defects and producing the highest quality outputs possible. (p. 143)

Six Sigma An incremental data-driven approach to quality management for eliminating defects from a process. The term ‘Six Sigma’ comes from the idea that if the quality of all output from a process were to be mapped on a bell-shaped curve, that tail of the curve, six sigma from the mean, would be where there were less than 3,4 defects per million. (p. 144)

Workflow Describes activities that take place in a business process. (p. 145)

Business Process Management A well-defined and optimized set of IT processes, tools, and skills used to manage business processes. (p. 146)

Enterprise systems A set of information systems tools that many organizations use to enable this information flow within and between processes across the organization. (p. 148)

Middleware Software used to connect processes running in one or more computers across a network. (p. 153)



Chapter F: Information Systems Strategy: Architecture and Infrastructure


Architecture Provides a blueprint for translating business strategy into a plan for IS. (p. 169)

Infrastructure Everything that supports the flow and processing of information in an organization, including hardware, software, data and network components. It consists of components, chosen and assembled in a manner that best suits the plan and enables the overarching business strategy. (p. 169)

Platform The hardware and software on which applications are run. For example, the iPhone is considered a platform for many applications and service that can be run on it. (p. 172)

Applications A software program designed to facilitate a specific practical task, as opposed to controlling resources. (p. 172)

Centralized architecture Aarchitecture where everything is purchased, supported and managed centrally usually in a data center. (p. 173)

Decentralized architecture Architecture in which the hardware, software, networking and data are arranged in a way that distributes the processing and functionality between multiple small computers, servers, and devices and they rely heavily on a network to connect them together. (p. 174)

Service-oriented architecture This is the term used to describe the architecture where business processes are built using services delivered over a network. Services are software that are distinct units of business functionality residing on different parts of a network and can be combined and reused to create business applications. (p. 174)

Reuse Relatively small chuncks of functionality are available for many applications. (p. 174)

Software-as-a-service This term is used to describe a model of software deployment that uses the Web to deliver applications on an ‘as-needed’ basis. Often when software is deliverd as a service, it runs on a computer on the Internet, rather than on the customer’s computer, and is accessed through a Web browser. (p. 175)

Web services The software systems that are offered over the Internet and executed on a third party’s hardware. Often Web services refer to a more fundamental software that use XML messages and follow SOAP (simple object access protocol) standards. (p. 175)

Peer-to-peer Infrastructure that allows networked computers to share resources without a central server playing a dominant role. (p. 176)

Wireless (mobile) infrastructures Infrastructure that allows communication from remote locations using a variety of wireless technologies. (p. 176)

Web-based architectures Architecture in which significant hardware, software, and possibly even data elements reside on the Internet. (p. 176)

Capacity-on-demand The availability of additional processing capability for a fee. (p. 177)

Bring Your Own Device The scenario when employees bring their own devices to work and connect to enterprise systems. This is commonly used to mean devices such as smart phones, tablets and laptops. (p. 177)

Consumerization of IT The drive to port applications to personal devices and the ensuring issues to make them work. (p. 177)

Enterprise architecture The term used  for a blueprint for the corporation that includes the business strategy, the IT architecture, the business processes, and the organization structure and how all these components relate to each other. Often this term is IT-centric, specifying the IT architecture and all the interrelationships with the structure and processes. (p. 181)

TOGAF Includes a methodology and set of resources for developing an enterprise architecture based on the idea of an open architecture, an architecture whose specifications are public. (p. 182)

Zachman Framework Enterprise architecture that determines architectural requirements by providing a broad view that helps guide the analysis of the detailed view. (p. 182)

Cloud computing A style of infrastructure where capacity, applications, and services are provided by a third-party provider over the Internet often on a fee for use basis. (p. 183)

Utility computing Purchasing entire computing capability on an as-needed basis. (p. 184)

Scalable Refers to how well an infrastructure component can adapt to increased, or in some cases decreased, demands. (p. 188)



Chapter G: Cost Recovery of Information Systems


Business-IT maturity model Framework that displays the demands on the business side and the IT offerings on the supply side to help understand differences in capabilities. (p. 198)
Business technology strategist The strategic business leader who uses technology as the core tool in creating competitive advantage and aligning business and IT strategies. (p. 206)

Chief Information Officer The seniormost officer responsible for the information systems activities within the organization. The CIO is a stragetic thinker, not an operational manager. The CIO is typically a member of the senior management team and is involved in all major business decisions that come before that team, bringin an information systems perspective to the term. (p. 206)

Community manager The person who helps build, grow and manage a community. (p. 208)
Business case A structured document that lays out all the relevant information needed to make a go/no go decision. It contains and executive summary, overview, assumptions, program summary, financial discussion and analysis, discussion of benefits and businesss impacts, schedule and milestones, risks and contingency analysis, conclusion and recommendations. (p. 209)
IT portfolio management Refers to evaluating new and existing applications collectively on an ongoing basis to determine which of the applications provide value to the business in order to support decisions to replace, retire, or further invest in applications across the enterprise. (p. 213)
Economic value added (EVA) Valuation method which accounts for opportunity costs of capital to measure true economic profit and revalues historical costs to give and accurate picture of thrue market value of assets. (p. 216)
Net present value (NPV) Valuation method that takes into account the time value of money in which cash inflows and outflows are discounted. (p. 216)

Return on investment (ROI) Valuation method which calculates the percentage rate that measures the relationship between the amount the business gets back from an investment and the amount invested. (p. 216)

Balanced scorecard Method which focuses attention on the organization’s value drivers. Companies use it to assess the full impact of their corporate strategies on their customers and workforce, as well as their financial performance. (p. 218)
Dashboard Common management monitoring tool which provides a snapshot of metrics at any given point in time. (p. 221)

Chargeback funding method Method for funding IT costs in which costs are recoverd by charging individuals, departments or business units based on actual usage and cost. (p. 223)

Allocation funding method Method for funding IT costs which recovers costs based on something other than usage, such as revenues, the login accounts, or the number of employees. (p. 224)
Corporate budget funding method Method for funding IT costs in which the costs fall to the corporate bottom line, rather than being levied to specific users or business units. (p. 225)

Activity-based costing Costing method that calculates costs by counting the actual activities that go into making a specific product or delivering a specific service. (p. 227)

Total cost of ownership Costing method that looks beyond initial capital investments to include costs associated with technical support, administration, training, system retirement, etc. (p. 228)



Chapter H: Governance of the Information Systems Organization


Centralized IS organizations Organization structure that brings together all staff, hardware, software, data, and processing into a single location. (p. 237)

Decentralized IS organizations Organization structure that scatters hardware, software, networks and data components in different locations to adress local business needs. (p. 237)

Governance (in context of business enterprises) Making decisions that define expectations, grant power, or verify performance.  (p. 237)

Federalism Organization structuring approach that distributes power, hardware, software, data, and personnel between a central IS group and IS in business units. (p. 240)

IT Governance Specifying the decision rights and accountability framework to encourage desirable behaviour in using IT. (p. 241)

Archetype A pattern from decision rights allocation. (p. 242)

Review board A committee that if formally designated to approve, monitor, and review specific topics. (p. 249)

Steering committee IT governance mechanism which calls for joint participation of IT and business leaders in making decisions about IT as a group. (p. 249)
Business continuity plan (BCP) An approved set of preparations and sufficient procedures for responding to a variety of disaster events. (p. 250)

Sarbanes-Oxley Act United States federal statute increasing regulatory visibility and accountability of public companies and their financial health. (p. 251)

Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT) IT governance framework for decision controls that is consistent with COSO and that provides systemic rigor needed for the strong internal controls and Sarbanes-Oxley compliance. (p. 253)

Information Technology Infrastrucuture Library (ITIL) Control framework that offers a set of concepts and techniques for the  (p. 255)



Chapter I: Sourcing Information Systems around the World


Insourcing The situation in which a firm provides IS services or develop IS from its own inhouse IS organization. (p. 264)

Outsourcing The business arrangement where third-party provides and vendors manage the information system activities. In a typical outsourced arrangement, the company finds vendors to take care of the operational activities, the support activities, and the system development activities, saving strategic decisions for the internal information systems personell. (p. 264)

Service level agreement (SLA) Formal service contract between clients and outsourcing providers that describes level of service including delivery time and expected service performance. (p. 269)

Full outsourcing Situation in which an enterprise outsources all its IS functions from desktop services to software development. (p. 270)

Selective outsourcing The situation when an enterprise chooses which IT capabilities to retain in-house and which to give to an outsider. (p. 270)

Cloud computing A style of infrastructure where capacity, applications, and services are provided by a third-party provider over the Internet often on a fee for use basis. (p. 272)

Onshoring Situation in which outsourcing work is performed domestically. (p. 274)

Offshoring Situation in which IS organization uses contracter services, or even builds its own data center, in a distant land. (p. 275)

Farshoring Form of offshoring that involves sourcing service work to a foreign lower-wage country that is relatively far away in distance or time zone, or both. (p. 277)

Captive center An overseas subsidiary that is set up to serve the parent company. Companies set up captive centers as an alternative to offshoring. (p. 278)

Nearshoring Sourcing service workt to a foreign, lower-wage country that is relatively close in distance or time zone, or both. (p. 278)

Backsourcing A business practice in which a company takes back in-house assets, activities, and skills that are part of its information systems operations and were previously outsourced to one or more outside IS providers. (p. 281)

Strategic network A long-term purposeful arrangement by which companies set up a web of close relationships to provide product or services in a coordinated way to those companies in the system of relationships. (p. 283)



Chapter J: Managing Projects in a Global Ecosystem


Project A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result. Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. (p. 290)

Project stakeholders An Individual or an organization that is actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be affected as a result of project execution or as a result of project completion. (p. 290)

Project management An application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements. (p. 292)

Project management office (PMO) The organizational unit within which resides the expertise for managing projects. (p. 294)

Project manager Person who makes sure that the entire project is executed appropriately and coordinated properly; defines project scope realistically and manages project so that it can be completed on time and within budget. (p. 295)

Systems development life cycle (SDLC) The process of designing and delivering the entire system. SDLC usually means these seven phases: initiation of the project, requirements definition phase, functional design phase, technical design and construction phase, verification phase, implementation phase, and maintenance and review phase. (p. 303)

Direct cutover Conversion in which the new system may be installed in stages across locations, or in phases. (p. 304)

Parallel conversion Conversion in which the old system stops running as soon as the new system is installed. (p. 304)

Agile development System development methodologies used to deal with unpredictability. They adapt to changing requirements by iteratively developing systems in small stages and then testing the new code extensively. They include XP (Extreme Programming), Crystal, Scrum, Feature-Driven Development, and Dynamic System Development Method. (p. 306)

Prototyping An evolutionary development method for building an information system. Developers get the general idea of what is needed by the users, and then build a fast, high-level version of the system as the beginning of the project. The idea of prototyping is to quickly get a version of the software in the hands of the users, and to jointly evolve the system through a series of cycles of design and build, then use and evaluate. (p. 307)

Rapid applications development (RAD) This process is similar to prototyping in that it is an interactive process, where tools are used to speed up development. RAD systems typically have tools for developing the user, reusable code, code generation, and programming language testing and debugging. These tools make it easy for the developer to build a library of a common, standard set of code that can easily be used in multiple applications. (p. 308)


Joint applications development (JAD) A version of RAD or prototyping in which users are more integrally involved, as a group, with the entire development process up to and, in some cases, including coding. (p. 309)

Object Encapsulates both the data stored about an entity and the operations that manipulate that data. (p. 309)

Open source software (OSS) Software released under a license approved by the Open Source Initiative. (p. 310)

Open sourcing A development approach called the process of building and improving ‘free’ software by an Internet community. (p. 310)

Mashups A term used in the Web 2.0 community to mean the combination of data from multiple sources into one Web page, for example, combining Google Maps with real estate data to produce a diagram showing home price ranges for certain neighborhoods. (p. 311)



Chapter K: Business Analytics and Knowledge Management


Business analytics The use of data, analysis, an modeling to arrive at business decisions. Some organizations use business analytics to create new innovations or to support the modification of existing products or services. (p. 327)

Business intelligence Refers to the broader practice of using technology, applications, and processes to collect and analyze data to support business decisions.  (p. 327)

Knowledge management The processes necessary to capture, codify, and transfer knowledge across the organization to achieve competitive advantage. (p. 327)

Intellectual capital The knowledge that has been identified, captured, and leveraged to produce higher-value goods or services or some other competitive advantage for the organization. (p. 328)

Data Set of specific, objective facts or observations that standing alone have no intrinsic meaning. (p. 330)

Information Data endowned with relevance and purpose; data in a context. (p. 330)

Knowledge Information synthesized and contextualized to provide value. (p. 331)

Tacit knowledge Personal, context-filled, and hard to formalize and communicate. It consits of experiences, beliefs, and skills. Tacit knowledge is entirely knowledge and is often acquired through physically practicing a skill or activity. (p. 332)

Explicit knowledge Objective, theoretical, and codified for transmission in a formal, systematic method using grammar, syntax, and the printed word. (p. 334)

Tagging Process in which users themselves list key words that codify the information or document at hand, creates ad-hoc codification system, sometimes referred to as a folksonomy. (p. 335)

Folksonomy Collaboratively creating and managing a structure for any type of collection, such as collection of ideas, data, or documents. The term is the merger of ‘folk’ and ‘taxonomy’, meaning that it is a user-generated taxonomy. (p. 335)

Big data The term used to describe techniques and technologies that make it economical to deal with extremely large datasets at the extreme end of the scale. (p. 341)


Chapter L: Ethical Guidelines for Information Use


Information ethics Ethical issues associated with the development and application of information technologies. (p. 352)

Stockholder theory A theory used in business ethics to describe how managers should act. Stockholders advance capital to corporate managers who act as agents in advancing their ends. The nature of this contract binds managers to act in the interest of the shareholders (i.e., to maximize shareholder value). (p. 352)

Stakeholder theory A theory use in business ethics to describe how managers should act. This theory suggests that managers, although bound by their relation to stockholders, are entrusted also with a fiduciary responsibility to all those who hold a stake in or a claim on the firm, including employees, customers, vendors, neighbors, etc. (p. 353)

Social contract theory A theory use in business ethics to describe how managers should act. These theorists ask what conditions whould have to be met for the members of such a society to agree to allow a corporation to be formed. Thus, society bestows legal recognition on a corporation to allow it to employ social resources toward given ends. (p. 354)

Green computing An upcoming technology strategy in which companies become more socially responsible by using computing resources efficiently. (p. 357)

Privacy Area of information control involved with the right to be left alone; involved with the protections from intrusion and information gathering by others; an individual’s ability to personally control information about themselves.(p. 359)

Cookie A text message given to a Web server that is used to follow a person’s surfing habits. (p. 361)

Accuracy Area of information control dealing with the correctness of information or lack of errors in information. (p. 364)

Accessibility Area of information control involved wih the ability to obtain data. (p. 365)

Property Area of information control focused on who owns the data.  (p. 365)

Identity theft The taking of the victim’s identity to obtain credit, credit cards from banks and retailers, steal money from the victim’s existing accounts with utility companies, rent an apartment, file bankruptcy or obtain a job using the victim’s name. (p. 366)


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