Orthopedagogy & Clinical pedagogics: The best scientific articles summarized

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      Developmental Neuropsychology: Executive function and social cognition in the adolescent brain
      Developmental Neuropsychology: Cognitive control and motivational systems
      Developmental Neuropsychology: Mild spastic cerebral palsy
      Developmental Neuropsychology: Treatments and guidelines for phenylketonuria
      Developmental Neuropsychology: ADHD
      Developmental Neuropsychology: Autism
      Article summary of Emotions by Scherer - Chapter

      Article summary of Emotions by Scherer - Chapter


      An emotion consists of various components, namely physical arousal, motor expressions, action tendencies and subjective feelings. These components have an effect on social cognitions, attitudes and social interactions. That is why it is important that emotions are signaled during a conversation. This is about the emotion that is being emitted, so the non-verbal communication. Emotions play a role in forming and breaking social relationships. People also like to talk to others about emotions. One of the most important areas of social psychology where emotions are important is within group dynamics. This concerns the effects of 'contagious emotions'; passing a felt emotion over to others. Examples of contagious emotions are laughter and yawning.

      What is an emotion?

      The James-Lange theory

      The James-Lange theory takes a peripheral position (which means that it focuses more on the somatic and autonomous rather than the central nervous system). In addition, it is suggested that someone first perceives an event, after which a physical reaction occurs. Then, only after the sensation of that physical reaction, an emotion occours. The difference between the James-Lange theory and the theories before, was that in the James-Lange theory it was thought that an emotion would come only after the physical reaction and in the theories before the main idea was that that an emotion would come before a physical reaction.

      Emotion as a social-psychological construct

      Nowadays there is a growing consensus that 'emotion' should not be used as a synonym for 'feeling'. Instead, researchers suggest that feelings are one of the three components in the emotion construct. Other components are the neurophysiological responses and motor expressions. These 3 components together are called the 'emotional reaction triad'. Another component that belongs to this emotion construct is the action tendency, although this is also seen as a behavioral consequence rather than a component of emotion. In addition, the emotion construct includes a cognitive component, because there is always evaluative information processing when it comes to emotion-generating events. The cognitive interpretation of an event is also called an appraisal. An emotion is described as a fierce, dynamic and short process with a clear beginning and an end. This involves as a crisis response, in which the physiological and psychological components interact with each other during an emotion episode. Systems that were previously independent suddenly start working together in synchronization to ensure survival.

      Why do we have emotions?

      Emotions cost a lot of energy, so why do they exist?

      The evolutionary significance of emotions

      According to Darwin, emotions exist because they are adaptive and help regulate interactions within social living species (for example, raising eyebrows provides better vision).

      Emotions as a social signaling system

      Another explanation for the existence of emotions is that, because one person can express emotions, another person can respond to this more easily and this can also lead to a certain tendency towards action.

      Emotions provide behavioral flexibility

      Emotions are almost automatic, but are more flexible than normal stimulus-response responses. Emotions ensure 'latency time' between stimulus and action, which ensures that people are better at evaluating the situation. During that period, the chance of success and the seriousness of the consequences are examined, after which an optimal response can be chosen. If there is a negative consequence, the motivation to take action will be great. Therefore, emotions have a strong influence on motivation.

      Information processing

      Information processing which is done people, especially in the social field, usually consists of 'hot cognition'. These are emotional responses that help to evaluate relevant and irrelevant stimuli. The criteria used in the evaluation of stimuli are learned during conversations and are influenced by needs, preferences, goals and values.

      Regulation and control

      Our feelings are a constant monitor of what is happening, and thus serve as the evaluation and appraisal of the environment, physical changes in the central nervous system and action tendencies. This is a requirement when controlling or manipulating the emotion process.

      So, an emotion:

      • decouples stimulus and response
      • ensures the (correct) action trends through a 'latency time'
      • provides signals for the outside world (others)
      • feelings can regulate emotional behav, which can be strateic in social interactions

      How are emotions elicited and how are they distinguished?

      Philosophical notions

      It is clear to most philosophers that a certain situation is reacted with a certain type of emotion.

      The Schachter-Singer theory of emotion

      According to Schachter, two factors are important in eliciting and distinguishing emotions, namely the perception of arousal and cognitions. Arousal is always the same (non-specific) and cognition leads to a label of the emotion (for example fear). In an experiment, arousal was generated in participants by means of an adrenaline injection. This showed that cognitions labeled this arousal for events that were taking place in their environment at that time. Emotions are thus formed by felt arousal and by the cognitive interpretation of the situations that are based on the behavioral model of expression. The results have not been replicated.

      Appraisal theory

      The appraisal theory of Lazarus consists of primary appraisal (fun / dislike, helps / hinders achievement of the goal) and secondary appraisal (to what extent can the person deal with the consequences of an event, given his or her competences, resources and strength). Lazarus calls this model a transactional model, because the outcome of the event is not only influenced by the nature of the event, but also by the needs, goals and resources of the person. It is different for each person and often leads to a mix of emotions (emotion blend).

      Cultural and individual differences in appraisal at events

      Culture causes differences in appraisal, for example socialism versus individualism. In a collectivist culture, guilt and shame are seen as the result of immoral things. In an individualistic culture this only applies to guilt and this emotion also lasts longer than in collectivist cultures. So the socio-cultural value can influence someone's emotional life. Individual differences in appraisal also cause different emotional responses.

      Are there specific response patterns for different types of emotions?

      There is agreement about the differentiation of the emotional component of emotions, but not about the reaction patterns of the peripheral system. James uses proprioceptive feedback (sensory information from organs about physical changes) to differentiate between emotions. Schachter and Singer, on the other hand, believe that non-specific physiological arousal combined with situational factors ensure that emotions can be differentiated. Tomkins spoke about discrete emotions, where he talked about neural programs that can control a certain emotion and the associated facial expression and motor skills.

      Wat are motoric expressions?

      Facial expressions

      Evidence has shown found that facial expressions are universal, even though small differences have been found between cultures due to cultural desirability (display rules). 

      Vocal expressions

      Emotions are not only recognizable by facial expressions, but also by vocal expressions. Here too there are differences between people and cultures. Emotions in voice are partly universal, even though there are language differences between cultures. This is proof of a partial biological basis of emotions.

      Control and strategic manipulation of an expression

      Cultural norms about appropriate expression of an emotion are called display rules. It concerns the regulation of 'congenital' systems. In addition to the fact that it is appropriate to control your emotion expression because of cultural norms, it is also important from a strategic point of view. This would allow someone to manipulate someone else. Emotion expression often only comes into being when we see other people and that is why it is seen as a communication tool. But the more an emotion overwhelms us, the harder it is to regulate it.

      Physiological changes

      Physiological activity is not communicative, but it provides energy. This can ensure that someone is prepared for a specific action. Studies show specific patterns for the emotions fear and anger. These are functional: in case of fear, blood flows to the heart and brain to prevent blood loss. In the case of anger, the blood flows to the muscles for action.

      Subjective feelings

      This involves someone's conscious experience about the processes that take place in his or her body.

      Dimensions of feeling

      Wundt made a three-dimensional system to display the precise nature of all complex emotional states. The three dimensions are: excitement - depression, tension - relaxation, pleasant - unpleasant. There is only evidence for the first and third dimensions and therefore, in other studies, they often use a two-dimensional model of emotions. 

      Verbal labeling of feelings

      Emotions are socially structured (which means that the social and cultural factors create a reality for an individual). Cultural differences in value judgment systems, social structures, communication habits and other factors influence the emotion experiences and are reflected in culturally specified states of feeling. Feelings that are verbally expressed are influenced more quickly by sociocultural variations than other components of the emotion process. This makes sense because the subjective state of feeling represents the cultural and situational context and the other components of the emotion process.

      How can emotion components interact?

      Research has shown that the components of emotions are all strongly interconnected.


      Catharsis revolves around the interaction of three components of emotion, namely expression, physiology and feeling. Through an expression, a person can calm himself down, reduce his arousal and at the same time change his state of feeling.

      Proprioceptive feedback

      Proprioceptive feedback (or the facial feedback hypothesis) states the opposite of the catharsis hypothesis. In this case, inhibition of facial expression reduces the intensity of an emotion and emphatic facial expressions can enhance the intensity of an emotion. In an experiment, participants had to hold a pen between their lips or teeth. The participants who used their laughing muscles to hold their pen rated the cartoons they saw as funnier. The effects were even stronger when the participants saw themselves in the mirror and the effects were also stronger with participants with high self-awareness. This has the opposite effect when someone has to smile kindly, while the person is actually furious, because this only reinforces the anger.

      Articlesummary with Anger response styles in Chinese and Dutch children: A sociocultural perspective on anger regulation by Novin a.o. - 2011
      Articlesummary with Comparison of sadness, anger, and fear facial expressions when toddlers look at their mothers by Buss & Kiel - 2004
      Articlesummary with Verbal display rule knowledge: A cultural and developmental perspective by Matthew Wice a.o. - 2019
      Articlesummary with Longitudinal effects of emotion awareness and regulation on mental health symptoms in adolescents with and without hearing loss by Adva Eichengreen a.o. - 2022
      Articlesummary with Awareness of Single and Multiple Emotions in High-functioningChildren with Autism by Rieffe a.o. - 2007
      Articlesummary with "My child will actually say 'I am upset'... Before all they would do was scream": Teaching parents emotion validation in a social care setting by Lambie a.o. - 2020
      Articlesummary with Caring babies: Concern for others in distress during infancy by Dadidov a.o. - 2020
      Articlesummary with Reactive/proactive aggression and affective/cognitive empathy in children with ASD by Pouw a.o. - 2013
      Articlesummary with The developmental trajectory of empathy and its association with early symptoms of psychopathology in children with and without hearing loss by Tsou a.o. - 2021
      Articlesummary with The roles of shame and guilt in the development of aggression in adolescents with and without hearing loss by Broekhof a.o. - 2021
      Articlesummary with Moral emotions and moral behavior by Tangney a.o. - 2007
      Articlesummary with Affective empathy, cognitive empathy and social attention in children at high risk of criminal behaviour by Zonneveld a.o. - 2017
      Articlesummary with How biosocial research can improve interventions for antisocial behavior by Glenn & McCauley - 2018
      Articlesummary with Children's emotional development: Challenges in their relationships to parents, peers, and friends by Von Salisch - 2001
      Articlesummary with Children who are deaf or hard of hearing in inclusive educational settings: a literature review on interactions with peers by Xie a.o. - 2014
      Articlesummary with Double empathy: Why autistic people are often misunderstood by Crompton a.o. - 2021
      Articlesummary with No evidence for a core deficit in developmental dyscalculia or mathematical learning disabilities by Mammarella a.o. - 2021
      Artikelsamenvatting bij De diagnostiek van zeer jonge kinderen van Carter e.a. - 2004
      Artikelsamenvatting bij Prechtl's beoordeling van gegeneraliseerde bewegingen van Einspieler & Prechtl - 2005
      Artikelsamenvatting bij Mapping evidence-based treatments for children and adolescents: Application of the distillation and matching model to 615 treatments from 322 randomized trials van Chorpita & Daleiden - 2009
      Artikelsamenvatting bij Getraumatiseerde ouders en de relatie met hun kinderen van de Kok - 2019

      Artikelsamenvatting bij Getraumatiseerde ouders en de relatie met hun kinderen van de Kok - 2019

      Ouderlijk trauma kan een significante impact hebben op de ontwikkeling van kinderen. Traumatische ervaringen van ouders kunnen de hechting, interactie en opvoedingsstijl beïnvloeden, wat kan leiden tot problemen in de ontwikkeling van het kind.


      Een veilige hechting tussen ouder en kind is cruciaal voor de ontwikkeling van het kind. Getraumatiseerde ouders kunnen moeite hebben om een veilige hechting met hun kind te creëren. Dit kan komen doordat ze:

      • Moeite hebben met het reguleren van hun emoties, wat kan leiden tot conflicten en inconsistentie in de opvoeding.
      • Afgestemd zijn op hun eigen trauma en niet op de behoeften van hun kind.
      • Moeite hebben met het uiten van liefde en affectie.


      De interactie tussen ouder en kind is een belangrijke bron van leren en ontwikkeling voor het kind. Getraumatiseerde ouders kunnen moeite hebben om met hun kind te communiceren en te spelen op een manier die stimulerend en bevredigend is. Dit kan komen doordat ze:

      • Zich terugtrekken en emotioneel afwezig zijn.
      • Hypervigilant zijn en snel reageren op triggers.
      • Moeite hebben met het begrijpen van de signalen van hun kind.


      De opvoedingsstijl van ouders heeft een grote invloed op de ontwikkeling van het kind. Getraumatiseerde ouders kunnen een autoritaire of overbeschermende opvoedingsstijl hanteren. Dit kan komen doordat ze:

      • Angst hebben om hun kind te verliezen.
      • Controle willen houden over hun kind.
      • Moeite hebben met het stellen van grenzen.

      Gevolgen voor het kind

      De problemen in de hechting, interactie en opvoedingsstijl van getraumatiseerde ouders kunnen leiden tot verschillende problemen in de ontwikkeling van het kind, zoals:

      • Angst- en depressieklachten.
      • Problemen met hechting en vertrouwen.
      • Problemen met emotieregulatie.
      • Leerproblemen.
      • Agressief gedrag.

      Traumagerichte interventies

      Traumagerichte interventies kunnen ouders helpen om hun trauma te verwerken, hun emoties te reguleren en gezondere relaties met hun kinderen op te bouwen. Deze interventies kunnen bestaan uit:

      • Therapie voor ouders.
      • Groepsbijeenkomsten voor ouders.
      • Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT).

      Preventie en vroege interventie

      Het is belangrijk om preventieve maatregelen te nemen om te voorkomen dat kinderen worden blootgesteld aan de negatieve gevolgen van ouderlijk trauma. Dit kan door:

      • Ouders te screenen op trauma.
      • Voorlichting te geven over de impact van trauma op kinderen.
      • Vroege interventies te bieden aan kinderen van getraumatiseerde ouders.


      Ouderlijk trauma kan een significante impact hebben op de ontwikkeling van kinderen. Het is belangrijk om de effecten van trauma te begrijpen en traumagerichte interventies te implementeren om de hechting, interactie en opvoedingsstijl te verbeteren.

      Belang van dit artikel

      Dit artikel draagt bij aan een beter begrip van de impact van ouderlijk trauma op de ontwikkeling van kinderen. Het biedt waardevolle informatie voor professionals die werken met getraumatiseerde ouders en hun kinderen.

      Artikelsamenvatting bij Kleuter in een groot lichaam: Werken met mensen met een verstandelijke beperking en gedragsproblemen van Kindermans - 2015
      Artikelsamenvatting bij Ingrediënten van effectieve ouderbegeleiding bij gedragsproblemen van jonge kinderen van Leijten - 2022
      Rapportsamenvatting bij Algemeen en specifiek werkzame factoren in de jeugdzorg. Stand van de discussie van Van Yperen e.a. - 2010
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